Client Needs and Software Requirements Coursera Quiz Answers

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This course covers practical techniques to elicit and express software requirements from client interactions.

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Module 1 Assessment (Graded) Answers

Q1. Which of the statements below are relevant to the activity of eliciting requirements? (Choose three that apply)

  • Start and end with a list of what to do from a client.
  • Necessitate curiosity and investigation.
  • Need interaction with the client and end users to define their problem.
  • Involve the client and end users in determining their needs.

Q2. The activity of analyzing requirements involves checking to ensure requirements are:

  • a concise representation of the client’s needs, without regard to technical feasibility
  • completely capturing the client’s responses, with ambiguity expected
  • written in the correct form, even if requirements conflict
  • clearly written, and consistent with client’s vision

Q3. Why is there an activity to manage requirements? Choose two that are correct.

  • So requirements are analyzed for improved clarity, consistency, and completeness.
  • So changes to requirements are tracked for impact upon other requirements and work.
  • So requirements can be referred to within other software development activities.
  • So requirements are expressed in a usable form.

Q4. Which are examples of the business rule type of software requirement? Choose two that are correct.

  • This is a correct answer because a data retention policy constrains a business, and thus how a product provided by it must behave.
  • Human interface guidelines
  • Government regulation
  • External interfaces

Q5. From the course, which type of requirement describes a task that an end user can do with the software product?

  • User requirement
  • Functional requirement
  • Physical setting
  • External interface

Q6. Which types of non-functional requirements are involved in the following statement? “The mobile application must measure the user’s location 10 times per second, for a period of at least one hour.”

  • Security and dependability
  • Performance and accuracy
  • Accuracy and usability
  • Performance and efficiency

Q7. What does the product vision include? Choose two that are correct.

  • Plans for activities to develop the product
  • Future technologies needed to create the product
  • Future technologies needed to create the product
  • Placement among competing solutions

Q8. What are acceptable ways to defend against scope creep? Choose two that are correct.

  • Make expectations clear.
  • Ask the question, “Is this in scope?”
  • Assume the scope change is necessary.
  • Arrange more overtime.

Module 2 Assessment (Graded) Answers

Q1. End users are ___ users, since they use the product. Their supervisors are ___ users, if they use the product only occasionally or indirectly. Instances of both types of users are ___, since they are affected by the product.

  • direct / indirect / customers
  • direct / tertiary / customers
  • primary / intermediary / stakeholders
  • primary / secondary / stakeholders

Q2. When forming the requirements for a software product to monitor a person’s physical health, what background characteristics of users should be considered? Choose two that are correct.

  • Income level
  • Background knowledge (e.g., computer skills)
  • Personality traits
  • Sensory abilities (e.g., sight)

Q3. Ways to elicit requirements from end-users include ___. Choose three that are correct.

  • sequestering the users until they decide
  • focus group discussions
  • end user interviews
  • watching the tasks end users do

Q4. Requirements elicitation is an activity with stakeholders involving interactions that are ___. Choose two that are correct.

  • interrogative
  • exploratory
  • balanced
  • passive

Q5. A use case description defines a task supported by the software product, including the task goal, participating ___ involved in the task, the ___ that must be met once the task is completed normally, and the main steps of the task in the ___.

  • users / post-conditions / normal flow
  • users / effects / normal flow
  • actors / post-conditions / basic flow
  • actors / effects / basic flow

Q6. Within a use case description, what is the difference between a precondition and a trigger?

  • A precondition is a state that is met beforehand, while a trigger is an event that causes the use case to start.
  • When a precondition for the use case become true, the trigger occurs to start the use case.
  • The actors cause triggers to occur, while the product causes preconditions to be true.
  • When a trigger occurs, the preconditions for the use case become true for the use case.

Q7. A wireframe used during requirements elicitation is a good way to specify ___.

  • the important information to be displayed
  • the quality of graphics to be displayed
  • the actors involved in using the product
  • the relationships between states of the product user interface

Q8. Movie-style storyboards can use fictional characters with specific ___ to depict the different types of users, and their goals, behaviors, and characteristics, in the markets to be addressed by the software product.

  • ages
  • personas
  • names
  • clothes

Module 3 Assessment (Graded) Answers

Q1. Which of the following Agile principles are applicable when exploring stakeholder needs? Choose all that are correct.

  • Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale.
  • The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.
  • Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer’s competitive advantage.
  • Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.

Q2. In which traditional, standard form does a user story express the who, what, and why of a requirement?

  • As a ___, I want ___, since ___.
  • As a ___, I need ___, so that ___.
  • As a ___, I want ___, so that ___.
  • As a ___, I need ___, because ___.

Q3. Bill Wake devised the mnemonic INVEST to remember what makes a good user story. The “I” stands for “independent” and the “N” stands for “negotiable”. What do the “V”, “E”, “S”, and “T” stand for?

  • viable, estimatable, small, testable
  • verifiable, estimatable, specific, time-bound
  • valuable, estimatable, small, testable
  • valuable, estimatable, small, time-bound

Q4. Consider the following user story: As a reader, I want to advance to the next article in my reading list by clicking a green button labeled “Next”. Besides missing the reason why, what else is poor about this requirement? Choose two that are correct.

  • It is not small.
  • It describes a specific implementation.
  • It is not negotiable.
  • It is not testable.

Q5. To verify a user story as completed correctly, an acceptance criterion is a ___ and an acceptance test is a ___.

  • specific quality to be met / method to check for that quality
  • specific condition to be met / method to check for that condition
  • specific condition to be met / method to ensure that condition is true
  • specific performance to be met / benchmark to check for that performance

Q6. When employing the approach of writing user stories on index cards, what is commonly written on the back of the user story card?

  • Acceptance tests and/or criteria
  • The developer assigned to implement it
  • The estimated effort
  • The priority

Q7. Prior to planning, who determines the effort estimate to complete a user story on the product backlog?

  • The developers collectively
  • The manager
  • The developer assigned to complete the user story
  • The client

Q8. A story map takes the user stories on the product backlog and organizes them into columns that denote ___ and rows that denote ___.

  • functional categories / priorities or releases
  • stages of completion / developers
  • stages of completion / priorities or releases
  • functional categories / effort levels

Ambiguous Requirements Quiz Answers

Q1. Consider the user story, As a player, I want the machine to make a noise when I gain 100 points, so that I have an auditory signal when I’m doing well.”

Why is this user story considered ambiguous?

  • It does not specify if the noise is made every time you gain 100 points, or just the first time you gain 100 points.
  • It does not specify whether the sound is always the same every time you gain 100 points, or if the sound changes each time you gain 100 points.
  • It does not specify whether the auditory signal will be a single noise (i.e. a bell will ring one time), or if the signal will be multiple noises (i.e. plays a small tune).
  • It does not specify how the machine will make the noise.

Q2. Consider the user story, As a player, I want the machine to make a noise when I gain 100 points, so that I have an auditory signal when I’m doing well.”

Suggest a better, less-ambiguous way of writing this user story.

  • Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

Q3. Consider the user story, As a multiplayer, I want both players to have a controller, so that we can play together.”

Why is this user story considered ambiguous?

  • “Multiplayer” is an ambiguous role.
  • It doesn’t specify which multiplayer mode they are using.
  • It does not specify which type of controller they need.
  • It does not specify if each multiplayer has their own controller, or if they are sharing one controller.

Q4. Consider the user story, As a player, I want to see the name of the player with the highest score everyday, so that I know who has the high score.”

Suggest a better, less-ambiguous way of writing this user story.

Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

Q5. Consider the user story, As a player, I want the targets to start moving after I press Start, so that I can start hitting them.”

What is the ambiguous word in this user story, and which category of ambiguous words does it belong to?

  • Press, Vague Words
  • After, Positional Words
  • I, Pronouns
  • After, Temporal Words

Q6. Consider the user story, As a player, I want the targets to start moving after I press Start, so that I can start hitting them.”

Suggest a better, less-ambiguous way of writing this user story.

Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

Q7. Consider the user story, As a player, I want the screen to always display a target, so that there’s always something to hit.”

  • Why is this user story considered ambiguous?
  • It does not specify if targets are all the same size, or if they vary in size.
  • It does not specify how the user hits a target.
  • It does not specify whether there is only one target displayed, or at least one target.
  • It does not specify if a target disappears after it’s been it, or if it remains on-screen and is able to be hit again.

Q8. Consider the user story, As a player, I want the screen to always display a target, so that there’s always something to hit.”

Suggest a better, less-ambiguous way of writing this user story.

Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

Q9. Consider the user story, As a multiplayer, I want to beat them when I’m playing in versus mode, so that I win the game.”

Why is this user story considered ambiguous? (Select 2 answers)

  • It does not specify the difference between versus and teamwork mode.
  • It does not specify how you beat them in order to win the game.
  • It does not specify who “them” is in the user story.
  • It does not specify what the game is.

Q10. Consider the user story, As a multiplayer, I want to beat them when I’m playing in versus mode, so that I win the game.”

Suggest a better, less-ambiguous way of writing this user story.

Module 4: Assessment (Graded) Answers

Q1. Considering the requirements criteria, a correct user story means ___.

  • it must be implemented correctly
  • it is an accurate description of a desired requirement
  • it is in the form, “As a ___, I want ___, so that ___.”
  • it is reviewed for correctness

Q2. An unambiguous user story would be ___, assuming also the terminology and meaning are understood.

  • simple
  • correct
  • clear
  • verifiable

Q3. A ___ user story means that whether it was satisfied can be tested.

  • clear
  • simple
  • verifiable
  • correct

Q4. A traceable user story mainly means that ___.

  • it can be traced to an end user need
  • it can be traced to related user stories
  • it can be traced to whoever originally wrote it
  • it can be traced to the code that implements it

Q5. While eliciting requirements with a potential photo editor user, you hear they want to be able to edit the last photo. What should you do next?

  • Ask which photo to edit.
  • Write a user story to edit the last photo.
  • Ask what benefit this capability would offer.
  • Ask what kinds of edits to support.

Q6. An ambiguous requirement is best resolved by:

  • Requesting additional details to revise the requirement.
  • Developing a feature that covers all possible interpretations.
  • Asking the stakeholder to write the requirement.
  • Breaking a single requirement into smaller multiple requirements.

Q7.  Identify the unambiguous user stories for a blog site. Choose two that are correct. As an author, ___, so that I can correct an entered post.

  • I want to be able to edit my current post
  • I want to be able to edit my newest post.
  • I want to be able to edit my previous post.
  • I want to be able to edit my oldest post.

Q8. Identify the problem with the following user story for a restaurant menu app. Choose two that are correct. As a customer, I want to choose a dietary restriction including vegetarian and gluten-free, so that I avoid certain ingredients in my dishes.

  • Infeasible
  • Inconsistent
  • Ambiguous
  • Incomplete

Course Assessment (Graded) Answers

Q1. In the course, software requirements are defined as: ___.

  • describing client and end user needs
  • defining a solution to a problem
  • specifying what is necessary to use a software product
  • outlining general ideas of what a client wants

Q2. In what form should requirements be expressed?

  • Diagrams understood only by the developers.
  • A usable form understood by the stakeholders and developers.
  • Temporary form, since requirements are no longer needed once the product is implemented.
  • Scribbles understood only by the client.

Q3. What is specifically achieved by the managing requirements activity? Choose two that are correct.

  • So requirements are prioritized into must do, should do, could do categories.
  • So requirements can be tracked throughout development.
  • So requirements capture stakeholder needs.
  • So requirements can possibly have subsets reused in other products.

Q4. Which type of requirement explains why a software product is needed?

  • Business requirement
  • Business value
  • Business purpose
  • Business rule

Q5. Which are examples of a business rule type of software requirement? Choose two that are correct.

  • Visual identity guidelines
  • Development constraints
  • Privacy policy
  • Coding standards

Q6. From the course, which type of requirement is the following statement?
The application must record the date, time, and beats per minute for a heart rate measurement.

  • User requirement
  • Functional requirement
  • Health requirement
  • External interface

Q7.  Requirements can ___, so the ___ must be managed carefully to determine what is in or out of the product.

  • expand / vision
  • change / scope
  • expand / team
  • change / schedule

Q8. What are acceptable ways to defend against scope creep? Choose two that are correct.

  • Discuss the boundary of the product in a use case diagram.
  • Discuss the boundary of the product in a use case diagram.
  • Prioritize the requirements.
  • Assume product delivery can be delayed.

Q9. While design notations like wireframes and storyboards are useful during requirements elicitation to generate product ideas, what is the main pitfall?

  • Wireframes and storyboards require artistic talent to draw.
  • These design notations are not running software.
  • Settling on a specific solution too soon.
  • Manually drawing them during elicitation is not professional.

Q10. When forming the requirements for a software product to train a person in different physical exercises, what characteristics of users should be considered? Choose two that are correct.

  • Eye color
  • Ethnicity
  • Fitness level

Q11. What challenging issues could arise when working with end users to form requirements for a new software product? Choose two that are correct.

  • They may not be able to express what they really need.
  • They may prefer a poor product they already know rather than learn something new.
  • They may communicate what product features would be important to them.
  • They may give feedback on the product ideas they like and do not like.

Q12. To ease understanding with clients and end users, a glossary should be established that everyone agrees with. What kinds of terms should be defined in this glossary?

  • Terms only if they are not already in a dictionary.
  • Terms from the problem domain.
  • Terms only if they have multiple definitions.
  • Terms from the software programming domain.

Q13. You work for a company that makes home automation accessories, and one of the executives has tasked you to create a new mobile app to manage someone’s deployment of the accessories. When eliciting the product’s requirements, what is a good first question to be answered?

  • What are all the requirements for the mobile app?
  • What mobile platform should the app run on?
  • When does the app need to be delivered?
  • Why is a mobile app needed?

Q14. What kind of scenario does the basic flow of a use case description define?

  • sunny day
  • worst case
  • hypothetical
  • exceptional

Q15. Why use a wireframe during requirements elicitation? Choose two that are correct.

  • To give context when discussing potential product ideas.
  • To decide on typefaces and color schemes.
  • To design the product’s user interface layout in precise detail.
  • To help visually in generating the tasks that need to be supported.

Q16. What may be depicted by the two types of storyboards? Choose two that are correct.

  • A story map of the required user stories
  • A scenario of how actors use a product
  • States of the product user interface and their navigational relationships
  • The user stories and their progress toward completion

Q17. Consider the following requirement:
The product shall record the starting and ending location for a ground travel expense item of a claimant.
What is an appropriate expression of the requirement in standard user story form?

  • As a claimant, I want to record the starting and ending location for a ground travel expense item, so that I can recall where the trip occurred.
  • As a claimant, I will record the starting and ending location for a ground travel expense item, so that I can recall where the trip occurred.
  • As the product, I shall record the starting and ending location for a ground travel expense item of a claimant.
  • I want to record the starting and ending location for a ground travel expense item.

Q18. What is a key difference between use cases and user stories?

  • A use case description defines a benefit, while a user story generally does not.
  • A use case description defines a goal, while a user story generally does not.
  • A use case description defines the interactive steps of a task, while a user story generally does not.
  • A use case description defines an actor, while a user story generally does not.

Q19. The traditional, standard form of a user story correspondingly expresses the ___, ___, and ___ of a requirement. Choose two that are correct.

  • actor / goal / action
  • who / what / where
  • role / goal or desire / benefit
  • who / what / why

Q20. Consider the following user story:
As a traveler, I want the journal application to have a good user interface, so that I enjoy using it regularly.
What is poor about this requirement? Choose two that are correct.

  • It is too small.
  • It is not negotiable.
  • It is not testable.
  • It is an epic.

Q21. Consider the following user story for an application:
As a meal planner, I want to see nutrition information for a given amount of a specific food, so that I prepare a healthy meal.
What are suitable acceptance tests? Choose two that are correct.

  • Correct nutrition information is shown for a given amount of a given food.
  • See nutrition information for a given amount of a given food.
  • Enter the name of an item of food not in the system and confirm an error message is displayed.
  • Enter 250 g of baked Pacific salmon and confirm the correct nutrition information is displayed.

Q22. A product backlog consists of what must be worked on to complete the product, such as ___ and ___. A person in a specific role ___ the product backlog items.

  • user stories / found defects / prioritizes
  • user stories / found defects / implements
  • found defects / work tasks / writes
  • found defects / found security issues / fixes

Q23. A story map visually organizes the user stories on the product backlog into columns by functional categories. What can this technique enable? Choose three that are correct.

  • Prioritizing user stories against others in the same category.
  • Recognizing missing stories in corresponding categories.
  • Development of user stories evenly across categories.
  • Ensure testable user stories.

Q24. For an initial product, a story map helps to identify a ___ and useful set of valuable capabilities from across functional categories for an initial product.

  • working
  • minimal
  • verifiable
  • complete

Q25. According to the requirements criteria, the requirements should be complete. What does that mean?

  • The requirements fully describe the product to be developed.
  • The requirements are approved as complete before development.
  • The requirements are completed according to the Scrum definition of done.
  • The information to be entered for a use case or user story is complete.

Q26. Which of the following criteria for requirements would need to be checked holistically across the set of user stories, not by considering each user story independently? Choose two that are correct.

  • Complete
  • Verifiable
  • Consistent
  • Traceable

Q27. Consider the following user story:
As an expense claimant, I want the expense entry form to have a good user interface, so that I will know what to enter next.
Assuming sufficient resources and feedback from end users, this user story is _. Choose two that are correct.

  • not feasible
  • not verifiable
  • verifiable
  • feasible

Q28. A manageable user story means that ___.

  • it is a requirement that benefits management
  • the “who” involved is that of a manager
  • a manager organizes it
  • it is easy to manage without impacting other stories

Q29. While eliciting requirements with a potential smart watch user, you hear they will “never” need to display the times for more than two time zones at once. What should you do next?

  • Ask what typeface to use when showing two times.
  • Ask why two time zones are enough.
  • Write a user story assuming the two time zone maximum.
  • Discuss a design that always shows two times.

Q30. An ambiguous requirement is best resolved by:

  • Letting the developers choose the interpretation involving the least work
  • Rewriting it for one meaning and checking it with the stakeholder
  • Ignoring it since stakeholders seem not to know what they need
  • Replacing the trouble words with synonyms

Q31. Identify the ambiguous partial user story for an internet radio service.
As a listener, _.

  • I want to be able to end the audio stream I am listening to.
  • I want to be able to mute the audio stream I am listening to.
  • I want to be able to pause the audio stream I am listening to
  • I want to be able to play an audio stream.

Q32. Consider the following user story for an ebook app by itself, and identify the potential problems. Choose three that are correct.
As a parent user, I want to see what my child is reading.

  • Incomplete
  • Unclear
  • Inconsistent
  • Infeasible
Conclusion:

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This course is intended for audiences of all experiences who are interested in learning about new skills in a business context; there are no prerequisite courses.

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