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Stanford Introduction to Food and Health Week 01 Quiz Answers
Q1. Which of the following accurately describes the shift in U.S. food consumption patterns since World War II?
- As food manufacturers decreased the fat content in many highly-processed foods, they tended to increase the sugar content.
- As women entered the workforce, families tended to eat more meals at home.
- Though sugar consumption has increased on average, total calorie intake has remained mostly the same since the end of World War II.
- Though processed food consumption has increased on average, energy expenditure (physical activity) has also increased since the end of World War II.
- The shift in U.S. food consumption patterns has resulted in a situation where the body’s physiological adaptation to store calories is adaptive because it protects against obesity and diabetes.
Q2. Which of the following accurately describes nutrient metabolism?
- Protein contain more calories per gram than fat.
- Energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats can all be stored by the body in the form of fat (adipose tissue).
- Eliminating single nutrients in the diet is an effective weight loss strategy because it is a sustainable approach.
- All dietary amino acids are stored as muscle in the body.
- Carbohydrates provide more caloric energy per gram than other macronutrients.
Q3. In considering animal and plant sources of protein, which of the following is true?
- Animal sources of protein tend to be incomplete because they do not provide all of the essential amino acids in adequate amounts to be considered complete proteins.
- The human body cannot make any amino acids, so we need to get these from protein-rich foods.
- In general, animal sources of protein are overall healthier sources of dietary fiber than plant sources of protein.
- In many global food traditions, two or more plant sources of protein are combined to enhance the amino acid profile of a dish, incorporating more essential amino acids into the diet.
- In general, meat-based diets tend to be lower in saturated fat than vegetarian diets.
Q4. Which of the following recommendations would be best to give to a friend who derives most of his dietary fat from animal sources (like beef and fish) and wishes to improve his eating habits?
- He should take an Omega 3 supplement, as no animal sources contain this essential fatty acid.
- He should reduce his consumption of unsaturated fats and instead add more saturated fat to his diet.
- He should reduce his consumption of saturated fat and instead choose foods with naturally occurring unsaturated fats.
- He should try to consume more red meats (like beef and lamb) than white meats (like chicken and fish).
- He should make sure to have a plant-based fat with his meals whenever he eats animal products.
Q5. Consumption of foods with a high glycemic index (compared to a low glycemic index) usually leads to:
- A more rapid release of glucose into the bloodstream and a relatively muted insulin response
- A more rapid release of glucose into the bloodstream and an “insulin spike”
- A slower release of glucose into the bloodstream and a more stable blood sugar level
- A slower release of glucose into the bloodstream and a less stable blood sugar level
- A slower release of glucose into the blood and an “insulin spike”
Q6. Which of the following is true of dietary fats and fat metabolism?
- Unsaturated fats tend to be solids at room temperature.
- The human body can make all essential fatty acids given adequate sugar intake.
- Saturated fats tend to contain unstable chemical bonds that can create trans fats.
- Trans fats tend to increase the amount of HDL cholesterol in the blood.
- Saturated fats can raise LDL cholesterol but have not been shown to reduce HDL cholesterol as significantly as trans fats.
Stanford Introduction to Food and Health Week 02 Quiz Answers
Q1. Which of the following is true of nutrient density?
- It is a conceptual way of judging the relative health benefits of any given food by examining the ratio of calories in the food divided by its nutritional value
- It is a conceptual way of judging the relative health benefits of any given food by examining the ratio of calories in the food divided by its cost
- It is a conceptual way of judging the relative health benefits of any given food by examining the ratio of nutritional value in the food divided by its energy content
- Nutrient density tends to be higher in foods that are more highly processed.
- Leafy greens tend to be less nutrient dense than sodas.
Q2. Extensive food processing tends to:
- Decrease nutrient content and increase the spoil rate
- Decrease nutrient and decrease salt content
- Increase nutrient content and increase salt content
- Increase nutrient content and increase calorie content
- Decrease nutrient content and decrease the spoil rate
Q3. Based on the 2015 World Health Organization Recommendations on sugar intake, which of the following items should be limited in the diet?
- Sweet fruits like grapes
- Starchy vegetables like potatoes
- Intrinsic sugars
Q4. An active 24 year old male, with an
average energy intake of 3,000 calories/day, decides to reduce his free sugar
intake to 5% or less of total calories in accordance with the 2015 WHO
recommendations. Which of the following accurately describes his maximum free
- His free sugar intake maximum is 3,000 calories x 5% from sugar = 150 calories, along with a strict limitation on intrinsic sugars
- His free sugar intake maximum is 3,000 calories x 5% from sugar = 150 calories, along with no limitation on intrinsic sugars
- His free sugar intake maximum should be based on a 2,000 calorie diet regardless of his actual calorie intake and have a strict limitation on intrinsic sugars
- His free sugar intake maximum should be based on a 2,000 calorie diet regardless of his actual calorie intake and have no limitation on intrinsic sugars
Q5. Which of the following is NOT accurate about home cooking? (Four statements are true. Pick the one INACCURATE statement.)
- There are obstacles to home cooking, but it is possible to overcome these obstacles.
- Home-cooked food tends to be healthier than processed food.
- Cooking at home can improve eating behaviors, such as by decreasing snacking alone or increasing the number of meals at the table with family.
- Passing on cooking knowledge to younger generations and involving them in cooking can create a sustainable health-promoting movement.
- Though home cooking has several benefits, cooking at home is not practical and should be avoided.
Q6. Which of the following is one of the metabolic abnormalities associated with “Metabolic Syndrome”?
- Low plasma sodium levels
- Low blood pressure
- Low fasting plasma glucose
- High serum triglycerides
- High high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels
Q7. Which of the following is likely the most unsustainable change someone could make in their diet?
- Substitute consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages with flavored sparkling water.
- Commit to a completely vegan diet, which is typically healthier than a meat-heavy diet.
- Pick one day each week to prepare and enjoy a plant-based meal at home.
- Decrease the consumption of impulse foods by choosing to eat meals while seated at a table.
- Increase the number of home-cooked meals at home.
Stanford Introduction to Food and Health Week 03 Quiz Answers
Q1. Which of these is an accurate interpretation of Michael Pollan’s recommendation to “Eat food, not too much, mostly plants?”
- Get your calories from a variety of packaged items, do not consume excess calories, and consume a vegetarian diet.
- Get your calories from a variety of packaged items, do not consume excess calories, and take a daily multivitamin supplement.
- Substitute highly processed foods with less processed whole foods, do not consume excess calories, and take a daily multivitamin supplement.
- Substitute highly processed foods with less processed whole foods, do not consume excess calories, and consume a diet rich in plant-based foods.
Q2. Which of the following is accurate about home cooking?
- Having a set of “fundamental ingredients” on hand can help a home cook apply simple cooking principles to the preparation of a wide variety of foods.
- Home cooks do not tend to have a large amount of control over the nutrient content of their meals.
- Commercial food manufacturers tend to have a greater interest in the long-term health of the consumer than home cooks.
- Effective home cooking is only possible with frequent, daily shopping for the freshest ingredients.
- The health benefits of cooking at home are small and unable to prevent the onset of obesity and diabetes.
Q3. When considering vegetable intake, the average person should:
- Limit their consumption to 2 cups per day
- Avoid vegetables if they have been grown with any pesticides (i.e., eat ONLY organic)
- Prepare dishes with a wide variety of different colored vegetables, if available
- Avoid all starchy vegetables like potatoes and yams
- Leave the chopping to professionals and only purchase pre-chopped vegetables or no vegetables at all
Q4. Focusing on “sensible substitutions” in cooking and eating to improve health could include:
- Giving up all snacks while substantially increasing the food quantity eaten at each meal
- Purchasing desserts instead of making them from scratch, which can be too time-consuming
- Making snacks at home instead of buying them to control the fat, sugar and salt content
- Avoiding all sources of carbohydrates and substituting those with foods rich in animal protein
- Substituting two meals per day with commercial meal-replacement bars or shakes
Stanford Introduction to Food and Health Week 04 Quiz Answers
Q1. Which of these recommendations is accurate about constructing a healthy plate?
- Pick a large plate, as this is more likely to help maintain a sense of generous portions even with a moderate amount of food.
- Plan your meal around the protein and then determine which carbohydrate and finally, which vegetables could be added to your meal.
- Focus on only one type of vegetable at each meal, as this will help concentrate micronutrients from that particular vegetable in the body’s micronutrient stores.
- Consume a smaller amount of grains and protein relative to the amount of vegetables.
- Stay hydrated by drinking juices and smoothies often instead of water.
Q2. At the cafeteria, your friend, who expresses a desire to lose weight, picks up a large plate and starts by filling half of it with protein-rich foods. He fills the remaining portion of the plate with ¼ grains and ¼ vegetables. He grabs a bottle of water to drink. He comments that this is a typical meal for him. When considering how to make his meal healthier:
- He should not worry about plate size.
- He should be featuring grains, proteins, and vegetables roughly equally.
- He should start by filling one half of his plate with vegetables first.
- He should replace his water with 100% fruit juice.
- He should eliminate all grains from his diet.
Q3. Which of the following describes a practical, healthful approach to shopping for groceries?
- Choose foods from the perimeter of the grocery store, as items stocked here tend to be less processed than other foods.
- Prioritize organic foods (like an organic candy bar) even if they are more highly processed than non-organic foods (like a non-organic bunch of spinach).
- Focus on purchasing foods stocked at eye-level on grocery store shelves, which are almost always less processed than other foods.
- Choose foods with more ingredients, particularly if they include added vitamins and minerals.
- Shopping while hungry tends to increase the purchasing of healthier, less processed foods.
Q4. Which of the following is true about evaluating nutrition labels?
- Before evaluating the nutrient information on a label, consider the serving size and number of servings per package.
- Avoid foods without nutrition labels, since you will not be able to determine their nutritional value or nutrient content.
- Reduced-fat items are almost always lower in sugar than their full-fat counterparts.
- Foods that have added vitamins and minerals (like fortified cereals) are almost always healthier than foods that do not have added vitamins and minerals (like fresh produce).
- Moderate amounts of trans fats are acceptable in a packaged food item as long as they appear clearly on the nutrition label..
Q5. Which is the best interpretation of moderation in eating behaviors to maintain health?
- Eat reasonable amounts of foods that give you pleasure and simultaneously support your health.
- Eat only the highest quality foods in very small amounts in order to stay within your food budget.
- Eat only small amounts of foods that are rich in fat or carbohydrates, but consume protein in any amount.
- Alternate between consuming meals that leave you feeling overly full and meals that leave you feeling hungry.
- How much we eat is not important if we are eating the right foods in the correct proportions.
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