Table of Contents
All Weeks Animal Behaviour and Welfare Coursera Quiz Answers
Week 02: What Is Animal Welfare and Why Does It Matter?
Q1. The Utilitarian view is an approach that some people use to decide whether it is acceptable to use an animal in a given situation. This view is often used when designing legislation that involves animals.
Which of the following statements best describes the Utilitarian view?
- An approach that means we are ethically obliged to protect something if we have made an agreement to protect it – we may have indirect obligations towards animals because they matter to other humans.
- The opinion that we should decide whether it is acceptable to use an animal based on our relationship with that animal, and its potential effect on other humans.
- The idea that we should allow animals to remain as close to their natural state as possible – we should therefore not engage in any selective breeding or interference.
- A view that animals have moral rights – this means that animals have a value separate of their impact on humans and there are some situations where it is never acceptable to use animals.
- An ethical approach that involves the use of cost-benefit analysis; balancing the amount of suffering the action will cause (cost) with the benefit that the majority will receive; an action will be ethically justified if the benefits outweigh the costs.
Q2. Consider this imaginary scenario: A donkey is being used to drag an extremely heavy cart. The cart contains all of the food that a village is likely to receive that season. The donkey is suffering throughout the trip and is unlikely to survive. If the food does not reach the village, the people will not survive. Which of the following choices would reflect a Utilitarian view of this scenario?
- The use of the donkey is acceptable: the cost of the animal suffering is outweighed by the advantage of feeding a village.
- The use of the donkey is not acceptable: we have a moral responsibility to protect animals in our care and the donkey should not be allowed to suffer. An alternative should be found.
- The use of the donkey is acceptable: an agreement has been made between the person bringing the food and the people waiting for the food: the ethical obligation is to the village not the animal.
Q3. Animal welfare science uses an objective approach to allow us to make decisions based on evidence about what the animal needs, rather than our emotional response to a situation.
Q4. Read the following, and then consider the answer statements listed. For each answer option, decide if it is true or false.
The human population consumes a huge amount of animal products, with 60 billion land animals raised for meat each year. Intensive farming methods are often employed to meet this demand.
Mark the statements you believe describe potential animal welfare problems associated with intensive farming methods.
- There are not enough stock people to look after huge numbers of animals, which means some animals may suffer and not be noticed.
- Farmed animals would naturally live in stable social groups. Living in large groups chosen by stockpersons means problems such as aggression, bullying and serious injuries between animals can occur.
- Animals are often kept in environments where they cannot exhibit natural behaviour, which can have an effect on both their physical and mental well-being.
- Animals have too much space and are allowed to roam free.
- Farms can make a large amount of money which may be used to improve animal conditions.
- A large number of animals are humanely killed to provide meat for the population.
Q5. Read the following, and then consider the answer statements listed. For each answer option, decide if it is true or false. Mark each statement you believe to be true, and leave unmarked each answer you believe to be false.
As the human population grows, so does the number of domesticated animals that we keep. This also means there are more strays living on the streets; worldwide there are an estimated 500 million stray or free-roaming dogs.
Which of the following are animal welfare problems associated with strays?
- Culling the high numbers of stray animals is time consuming and expensive.
- The breeding of stray animals is often not controlled which has led to humans using inhumane and ineffective methods of getting rid of their growing population.
- High numbers of stray animals may be having an effect on tourism.
- Stray animals are often suffering from a number of untreated health issues.
- Stray animals are in danger of being hurt by vehicles, other animals or humans.
Q6. Which of the following is a famous quote about animals from the British philosopher Jeremy Bentham?
- “We need another and a wiser and perhaps a more mystical concept of animals.”
- “The question is not, ‘Can they reason?’ nor ‘Can they talk’, but ‘Can they suffer?’”
- “I think I could turn and live with animals, they are so placid and self-contain’d, I stand and look at them long and long.”
Q7. If you have a companion animal, such as a dog, cat or horse, which of the following are you responsible for?
- The animal’s physical health
- The animal’s mental health.
- The animal’s feeding and nutrition.
Q8. True or False: Animal welfare has no real impact on human wellbeing
Q9. Why do we use animal welfare frameworks, e.g. The Five Freedoms framework or the Duty of Care framework?
- Frameworks give us ethical guidance to decide what is right for an animal.
- Frameworks give us a common language we can use to discuss and compare animal welfare across different situations.
- Frameworks are specifically targeted at certain groups of animals, for example the Duty of Care framework is aimed at companion animal welfare.
- Frameworks encourage positive animal welfare.
Q10. Animal welfare legislation is put forward at the global level, and all countries must obey these laws.
Q11. Which of the following is NOT one of the Five Freedoms?
- The Freedom from Discomfort
- The Freedom to Play
- The Freedom From Hunger and Thirst
- The Freedom From Pain, Injury and Disease
- The Freedom to Behave Normally
- The Freedom From Fear and Distress
Q12. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the Duty of Care Concept?
- Anyone who is responsible for an animal has a duty of care to that animal.
- It is only the animal’s caretaker who has a duty of care to that animal.
- It is only the animal’s owner who has a duty of care to that animal.
Q13. True or False: The Five Freedoms can only be used for production animals
Week 03: What We Can Measure We Can Manage
Q1. What is speciesism?
- Allocating the same consideration to all species no matter our personal bias towards particular animals.
- Different levels of consideration given to an animal as a consequence of their species rather than any evidence of their ability to feel positive or negative emotions.
- Wanting to do research with as many different animals as possible.
Q2. What are the benefits to using an evidence based approach?
- Evidence based measures have been designed to allow for objective assessment of an animal’s response rather than an assessment based on our subjective feelings towards the animal or situation.
- With an evidence based approach, a large amount of laboratory equipment can be used to assess each animal and situation.
- An evidence based approach allows us to depend on our subjective feelings towards the animal or situation when deciding how the animal is reacting.
Q3. Why is it important to repeat the scientific process several times?
- To find out if your results are similar (which would confirm your hypothesis) or different each time (which would suggest your hypothesis is wrong).
- To make sure you get as many different results as possible
- In order to keep your sample size very small
Q4. Read the following, and then consider the answer statements listed. For each answer option, decide if it is true or false. Mark each statement you believe to be true, and leave unmarked each answer you believe to be false.
What kind of measurements are scientists able to routinely take from animals in order to assess their response to a situation?
- Feet size
Q5. What are the benefits of being able to objectively measure animal welfare parameters?
- We can use our emotion to develop environments where animals will be happy
- We are able to decide how to treat all species based on research done with one type of animal
- We are in a better position to understand what is positive and negative to an animal, meaning we are better able to manage their welfare
Q6. What does the term ‘anthropomorphism’ mean?
- Ascribing human traits, ambitions, emotions or entire behaviour to animals
- The physiological response of an animal to a stressor.
- Research involving humans.
Q7. Why is anthropomorphism a problem for animal welfare science?
- Anthropomorphism allows scientists to be objective about their research
- Anthropomorphism can make the animal uncomfortable during research
- Anthropomorphism can lead to misinterpretation of the animal’s response to a situation
Q8. Why is an ethogram (a list of behaviours and their descriptions) a useful tool in assessing animal behaviour?
- Having an ethogram means no one else will have to spend time watching and describing animal behaviour in future studies.
- An ethogram is the only way of recording an animal’s response to a situation.
- Having a standardised and clearly described list of behaviours means they can be accurately recorded and utilised by anyone wishing to repeat the research.
Q9. What do animal ‘choice tests’ allow us to measure?
- What the animal prefers and what it actively avoids.
- The physiological response of an animal to fear stimulus.
- Why an animal’s behaviour changes over time.
Q10. Using the principles of consumer-demand theory, an experiment was set up where a chicken was placed in a wire enclosure with the option to push through a weighted barrier that led to an enclosure with straw in it. The chicken continued to push through the barrier as its weight increased and would forage in the straw immediately after it gained access. What conclusions could be drawn from this experiment?
- The chicken was willing to ‘pay a price’ to reach the straw which suggests that the straw was of significant value to the animal.
- The chicken was not willing to use energy to reach the straw which suggests that the straw was not of value
- The chicken is physically healthy enough to push through weighted doors.
Q11. True or false? The sympathetic adrenal medullary (SAM) axis produces a fast acting response to stress to prepare the animal for fight or flight, while the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is slower but longer acting.
Q12. Which one of the following statements is true?
- The production of cortisol is associated with the SAM axis and can only be measured as part of the fight or flight response
- Adrenaline is associated with long term, chronic stress
- The production of cortisol is associated with the HPA axis and is a useful measure of how stress changes over time
Q13. Read the following, and then consider the answer statements listed. For each answer option, decide if it is true or false. Mark each statement you believe to be true, and leave unmarked each answer you believe to be false.
Measuring cortisol is one way of assessing what situations cause an animal distress; in what ways can cortisol be measured?
Q14. True or false. It is better to use only physiological or only behavioural measures instead of using both to assess animal welfare.
Q15. True or false. Only factors that affect the offspring after they are born can have an influence on their development, behaviour and health in later life.
Q16. What is the ‘trust your eyes’ or ‘qualitative behaviour assessment’ approach for describing animal feelings, pioneered by Professor Wemelsfelder?
- An approach that uses colours rather than words to describe animal emotion
- Research that focused on the use of eye movement to describe an animal’s response to stimuli; left eye movements indicate distress
- A holistic method of assessing animal welfare that allows people to describe animal emotion without using objective measures; people showed surprising agreement and reliability in their labelling of behaviours
Week 04: The Truth About Dogs and Cats
Q1.There are numerous domains or aspects of animal welfare. Which statement best describes the most appropriate indicators of welfare?
- Considering a combination of animal nutrition, environment, health, behaviour and mental or affective state is important in getting an overall picture of welfare.
- Nutrition, environment, health and behaviour are important but the affective mental state of an animal is unmeasurable and unimportant.
- The naturalness of an animal’s existence is the most important; if an animal is not in a natural environment it will have poor welfare.
- Health is the most important aspect of animal welfare; we can measure health by studying animal behaviour.
Q2. True or False. Owning a pet has been linked to health benefits, reduction in stress and development of empathy.
Q3. Which one of the following statements is FALSE?
- It is important to consider both physical and mental aspects of animal welfare when deciding whether an animal is suffering.
- The welfare challenges that an animal faces will be very different depending on the situation of the animal, e.g. whether it is stray, a pet or in a shelter.
- The welfare needs of an animal are different depending on whether they are a pet, a stray or in a shelter.
Q4. Read the following, and then consider the answer statements listed. For each answer option, decide if it is true or false. Mark all of the true statements and leave the false statements unmarked.
Which of the statements below describe welfare problems frequently seen in animals kept as pets?
- Voluntary socialisation with their own species
- Boredom and frustration
- Lack of choice
- Providing a choice of beds
- Lack of exercise and obesity
- Access to the outdoors
- Behavioural problems
Q5. True or False? 90% of animal owners consider their animal’s weight before deciding on their feeding regime.
Q6. According to the PDSA survey, what percentage of dogs are left alone for 5 hours or more on a regular basis?
Q7. True or False? Cats living indoors have poor welfare while cats given access to the outdoors have good welfare.
Q8. Signs of behavioural problems in dogs, for example property destruction, are usually signs of what?
- The dog does not like the colour of your furniture.
- The dog is experiencing stress and altering its behaviour in order to cope.
- The dog is born with this behaviour and it cannot be altered.
- The dog is settled and content.
Q9. Read the following, and then consider the answer statements listed. For each answer option, decide if it is true or false. Mark all of the true statements and leave the false statements unmarked.
Pet cats can suffer from a number of welfare issues, what are three frequent welfare concerns for pet cats?
- Outdoor cats are forced to use their skills in hunting and stalking prey.
- Pet cats are given very comfortable places to sleep.
- Pet cats are often fed ad libitum which means they are likely to experience obesity.
- Indoor cats are particularly susceptible to boredom and lack of adequate exercise.
- Pet cats exhibit normal behaviours such as scratching and spraying indoors, which causes problems for their owner and means they are more likely to be rehomed.
Q10. True or False. Pet cats are always more comfortable living in a large group of cats.
Q11. Read the following, and then consider the answer statements listed. For each answer option, decide if it is true or false. Mark all of the true statements and leave the false statements unmarked.
Stray animals are at risk of very poor welfare. From the list below, identify the problems often associated with stray dogs living on the street.
- Lack of veterinary treatment
- Conflict with humans and inhumane culling methods
- Freedom of natural behaviour
- Voluntary socialisation with their own species
- The ability to make choices
- Hunger and thirst
- Illness, injuries and disease
- Fighting over resources
Q12. Read the following, and then consider the answer statements listed. For each answer option, decide if it is true or false. Mark all of the true statements and leave the false statements unmarked.
Identify the problems associated with stray cats living on the streets.
- High levels of disease as unvaccinated cats live in close proximately to one another.
- Injury occurring as a result of fighting or by attacks from humans.
- Inadequate nutrition and food.
- High mortality, particularly in kittens, due to exposure to the elements and lack of shelter.
- Freedom to make choices.
- Expression of all natural behaviours.
- Insufficient interaction with humans.
Q13. Read the following, and then consider the answer statements listed. For each answer option, decide if it is true or false. Mark all of the true statements and leave the false statements unmarked.
No-kill shelters do not euthanise healthy animals under any circumstances. Which of these statements are true with regard to no-kill shelters?
- No-kill shelters have a limited capacity and must turn animals away, while shelters that euthanise animals can take in all animals and euthanise those that are unlikely to be rehomed.
- No-kill shelters have more staff than shelters that operate a euthanasia policy.
- No-kill shelters will always have more space and more equipment to ensure animals experience none of the welfare concerns associated with stray or pet animals.
Q14. Although well-meaning, there are often significant welfare challenges for animals housed in shelters. Which of the following statements best describes some of the most important welfare problems that animals face from being housed in these conditions?
- Animals often suffer from improper housing, inadequate feeding regimes, poor health and the development of behavioural problems.
- Animals prefer to be housed individually and do not suffer from solitary confinement.
- Animals are free to make choices in their movement and diet, will socialise with their own species and exhibit all natural behaviours.
- Animals will suffer from a lack of kindness from the shelter staff who have opened shelters in order to make money. 999933999
Week 05: Down on the Farm
Q1. Read the following, and then consider the answer statements listed. For each answer option, decide if it is true or false. Mark all of the true statements and leave the false statements unmarked.
In a commercial dairy system what are the essential requirements of cow housing?
- Individual head spaces at the feed face
- Easy access to clean fresh water
- Comfortable, dry bedded cubicles
- Sand bedding in cubicles
- Feeders and drinkers that can measure intake
- Enough space at the feed face so that all cows can feed at the same time
- Access to fields for grazing
Q2. Read the following, and then consider the answer statements listed. For each answer option, decide if it is true or false. Mark all of the true statements and leave the false statements unmarked.
What do UK dairy farmers consider to be the 3 biggest challenges to dairy cow welfare?
- Mixing cows into new groups
- Removing the calf from the cow during the first 12 hours following birth
- Uncomfortable cubicles
Q3. In commercial dairy systems the calf is removed from the cow soon after birth. In terms of minimising stress in both cow and calf when is the best time to do this?
- 6 hours following birth
- 4 days following birth
- 24 hours following birth
Q4. Consider this statement. Is it true or false? Within the EU sow gestation stalls have been banned for the majority of pregnancy.
Q5. Which instinctive behaviour that appears in late pregnancy is a sow less able to perform in a farrowing crate?
- Social interaction
- Nest building
Q6. What breeding goal may help to minimise the number of piglets dying before weaning?
- Breeding for the number of piglets alive at weaning
- Breeding for the number of piglets alive at birth
- Breeding for smaller piglets
Q7. At what age would piglets be fully weaned from the sow under natural conditions?
- 12-17 weeks old
- 22-27 weeks old
- 7-11 weeks old
- 3-5 weeks old
Q8. Read the following, and then consider the answer statements listed. For each answer option, decide if it is true or false. Mark all of the true statements and leave the false statements unmarked.
According to EU legislation what do furnished cages for laying hens have to provide?
- a dust bath
- 750 sq cm of floor space per hen
- a feed trough
- an egg belt
- a peck and scratch mat
- a nipple drinker
- a nest box
- air conditioning
Q9. Consider this statement. Is it true or false? Feather pecking never occurs within free-range farming systems.
Q10. In broiler breeders (the parents of broiler chickens) which of the 5 Freedoms is most likely to be compromised?
- Freedom from discomfort
- Freedom from hunger and thirst
- Freedom from pain, injury and disease
- Freedom from fear and distress
- Freedom to behave normally
Q11. Which one of the following was not discussed as a method to enrich the environment of a commercial broiler chicken shed?
- whole grains scattered in the wood shavings litter
- hay or straw bales to sit on or peck at
- natural daylight from windows
Q12. From the animal’s point of view what the most stressful part of the transport process?
- loading and unloading
- standing stationary in a traffic jam
- driving on twisty country roads
- driving on a motorway
Week 06: Lions, Tigers and Bears, Oh My!
Q1. Which statement best describes behaviour-based husbandry?
- An approach that involves providing animal’s with all the resources their carers believe they require, regardless of their present state.
- An approach that ensures animals are housed in groups in order to make resource provision more efficient.
- An approach that uses the animal’s behaviour to inform their carers what they need and what they should be provided with.
Q2. Positive reinforcement is a type of operant conditioning that is often employed in captive wildlife environments to facilitate husbandry procedures and support the human-animal bond. What is involved in positive reinforcement training?
- Positive reinforcement is used to prevent an animal from acting out a behaviour by presenting the animal with something it deems negative e.g. a loud noise.
- Positive reinforcement is used to encourage a behaviour by removing something the animal finds negative (e.g. a whip) once the animal performs a desired action (e.g. moves away from the whip).
- Positive reinforcement is used to encourage an animal to repeat a behaviour by rewarding the action with something the animal deems positive e.g. food.
Q3. True or false: A training programme must be progressive and enjoyable in order to be successful and enriching for the animal.
Q4. Read the following, and then consider the answer statements listed. For each answer option, decide if it correctly answers the question. Mark each statement you believe to be correct, and leave unmarked each answer you believe to be incorrect.
- It is important that training sessions are well managed to avoid a negative welfare impact on the animal. What potential NEGATIVE welfare outcomes should be considered when designing an operant conditioning programme?
- Anxiety or frustration for individuals not selected for training and thus not receiving additional attention and food rewards.
- Frustration or confusion occurring because of a poorly designed training programme which means the animal has a negative experience with the process.
- Less stress occurring during husbandry (e.g. cleaning animals) and veterinary procedures (e.g. clipping nails) as a result of these behaviours being encouraged by positive reinforcement.
- Stress caused by separating an animal from its conspecifics during their training sessions.
- A reduction in cortisol levels occurring as a result of the social interaction and mental stimulation provided during training sessions.
Q5. True or false: If enrichment is provided for the animal, no other considerations are needed for the animal to have good welfare; even if the physical environment is unsuitable.
Q6. Read the following, and then consider the answer statements listed. For each answer option, decide if it is true or false. Mark each statement you believe to be true, and leave unmarked each answer you believe to be false.
There are many different types of enrichments and ideally a complex variety of enrichments from different categories should be provided. Which of the following are enrichment types that can be provided to improve the captive animal’s welfare?
- Fear stimuli, e.g. encouraging stress in animals through human interactions.
- Barren enrichment, e.g. providing open, empty spaces to engage with.
- Physical enrichment , e.g. bedding material, nesting boxes, pools.
- Occupational enrichment, e.g. toys, traffic cones.
- Cognitive enrichment, e.g. problem solving challenges
Q7. Read the following, and then consider the answer statements listed. For each answer option, decide if it is true or false. Mark each statement you believe to be true, and leave unmarked each answer you believe to be false.
What are the reasons that live prey feeding is discouraged by animal welfare scientists and considered an inappropriate way of providing enrichment for captive animals?
- The animals will get too tired chasing prey and food should be provided in a bowl to minimise the energy needed to feed.
- The prey animal, which is under human care, will experience distress and is likely to suffer during its death.
- The obligate carnivores would not naturally prey on animals in the wild.
- A more enriching experience and prolonged stimulation can be provided through artificial means that fit within a captive environment, e.g. hidden food.
- The same behaviours that the enrichments aim to stimulate e.g. prey stalking and striking can be motivated by warm prey that has been humanely killed.
Q8. Read the following, and then consider the answer statements listed. For each answer option, decide if it is true or false. Mark each statement you believe to be true, and leave unmarked each answer you believe to be false.
In a recent paper (Melfi, 2009), gaps in our current knowledge and approach to zoo animal welfare were identified. What were these four gaps, discussed in this week’s video?
- A reliance to tradition and myth to decide how zoo animals should be managed.
- Our knowledge and efforts to improve zoo animal welfare are limited to relatively few types of animals.
- The provision of enrichment to encourage physical and mental stimulation.
- Deciding on the resources that an animal needs based on appropriate assessment of their behaviour and physiology.
- Assuming that a lack of poor welfare is equivalent to the animal having good welfare.
- Our understanding of how the animal’s environment affects its welfare is limited by our human perspective and anthropomorphic approach.
Q9. True or false: An animal with a large natural home range is more likely to engage in pacing behaviour when in a captive environment.
Q10. Why might animals with large natural home ranges require a more complex captive environment?
- Far-ranging species are more likely to interact with a variety of ecosystems, terrain and other species. This complexity as well as space needs to be accommodated for in captive environments.
- Animals with large home ranges are likely to be more sentient and so require more environmental stimulation to ensure good welfare; small animals are more content in barren enclosures.
- Larger and more far-ranging animals tend to attract more visitors, so their enclosure should be complex in order to provide an entertaining visit.
Q11. Read the following, and then consider the answer statements listed. For each answer option, decide if it is true or false. Mark each statement you believe to be true, and leave unmarked each answer you believe to be false.
Barren environments are often cited as the cause for abnormal repetitive (stereotypic) behaviours; however there can be more complex reasons. Which of the following statements about stereotypic behaviour are true?
- Repetitive behaviour can occur as a result of frustration and/or repeated attempts to cope with a stressor.
- Repetitive behaviours can only be a result of trauma experienced in the animal’s adult life.
- Abnormal behaviours can be seen both while the animal is experiencing stress and long after the animal has suffered from the stressor and is now in a better environment.
- It is impossible to alter abnormal behaviours once they have begun.
- Steretypic behaviour can be caused by central nervous system dysfunction.
Q12. True or false: Captive animals will experience the same problems with old age as their wild counterparts.
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