Understanding Cancer Metastasis Coursera Quiz Answers

Get All Weeks Understanding Cancer Metastasis Coursera Quiz Answers

History and Overview of Metastasis Quiz Answers

Q1. How is metastasis best defined?

  • The spreading of cancer from a primary site to distant organs
  • The study of tumors
  • A swelling in the body
  • Uncontrolled growth

Q2. The incidence of cancer is:

  • Not changing with age
  • Rising as the population ages
  • Decreasing as the population ages

Q3. Who defined the seed and soil hypothesis?

  • Paget
  • Ewing
  • Galen
  • Virchow

Q4. The seed and soil hypothesis:

  • States that cancer cells never metastasize
  • States that all cancer cells are equally good at metastasizing
  • States that cancer cells that metastasize will grow better in certain organs that have a congenial soil
  • States that cancer cells will grow equally well anywhere in the body

Q5. A cancer cell becomes more motile by…

  • Undergoing epithelial to mesenchymal transition
  • Undergoing a mesenchymal to epithelial transition
  • Hitching a ride in the circulation with a white blood cell
  • Getting pushed into the circulation by other cells

Q6. The term that refers to a cancer cell moving into the circulation is:

  • Angiogenesis
  • Extravasation
  • Metastasis
  • Intravasation

Q7. How is cancer best defined?

  • Cells that move around the body
  • The study of tumors
  • Spreading growth
  • Uncontrolled growth

Q8. New blood vessel growth is also termed:

  • Leukemia
  • Angiogenesis
  • Epithelial to mesenchymal transition
  • Carcinogenesis

Q9. True or False: Metastasis is the usual cause of cancer death.

  • True
  • False

Q10. True or False: Stephen Paget is credited with defining the seed and soil hypothesis of metastasis.

  • True
  • False

Primary Tumor Growth and Neoangiogenesis Quiz Answers

Q1. What does NOT occur during a healthy cell cycle?

  • a cell’s DNA duplicates
  • a cell divides
  • a cell undergoes apoptosis
  • a cell checks for damage to structure or DNA

Q2. When a cell is damaged, it always becomes a cancerous cell.

  • False
  • True

Q3. Cancer:

  • is uncontrolled cell division
  • begins with a single damaged cell (such as mutation)
  • has faulty cell cycle checkpoints
  • all of these options

Q4. Activating mutations in oncogenes promote cancer.

  • True
  • False

Q5. Mutations occur in proteins.

  • False
  • True

Q6. As a cell gains mutations…

  • It always dies
  • It can explode
  • It becomes more normal
  • It becomes more cancerous

Q7. The theory that states that both copies of a gene must be mutated in order to promote cancer is:

  • Translocations
  • The Two-Hit Hypothesis
  • The Central Dogma
  • The New Mutations Theory

Q8. Neoangiogenesis:

  • Is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels
  • Is required for tumor growth
  • Promotes metastasis by providing additional routes for cancer cells to leave the primary tumor
  • Is driven by hypoxia
  • All of these options

Q9. Blood vessels formed as a result of neoangiogenesis are highly organized.

  • False
  • True

Q10. What is the state of lack of oxygen?

  • Hypoxia
  • Normoxia
  • Anemia
  • Hyperosmia

Q11. The primary tumor is made up of only tumor cells and some normal cells.

  • False
  • True

Q12. Which of the following cell types influence tumor growth?

  • Fat cells
  • Neurons
  • Fibroblasts
  • All of these options

Invasion and Intravasation Quiz Answers

Q1. What is a characteristic of epithelial cells?

  • Expression of Vimentin
  • High motility
  • Cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion
  • Spindle shape

Q2. EMT stands for epithelial – _______ transition.

  • Mobile
  • Migratory
  • Musical
  • Mesenchymal

Q3. What does ECM stand for? Extracellular ______.

  • Maths
  • Matrix
  • Molecules
  • Molehills

Q4. What cells produce proteases to remodel the ECM?

  • All of these options
  • Endothelial cells
  • Immune cells
  • Cancer cells

Q5. Cancer cells require the ECM for:

  • Adhesion
  • Migration
  • Differentiation
  • Adhesion and Migration

Q6. Intravasation is a specialized form of _______.

  • Invasion
  • Cancer
  • Mutation

Q7. Intravasation describes the process in which a cancer cell moves into a ________.

  • Blood vessel
  • Lymphatic vessel
  • Blood vessel and Lymphatic vessel
  • Neuron

Survival in the Circulation and Extravasation Quiz Answers

Q1. Genes that are lost and normally prevent cells from undergoing metastasis are called _______________:

  • Blue jeans
  • none of these options
  • metastasis suppressor genes
  • oncogenes

Q2. Typically, normal a cell will die after undergoing ________. Cancer cells are resistant to this.

  • Anoikis
  • mitosis
  • Dunn’s limit

Q3. One pathway discussed in this lecture that allows cancer cells to evade death is the __________ pathway.

  • none of these options
  • EGFR/PI3-K
  • meiosis

Q4. After homing using chemokines, CTCs __________ and _______________ onto endothelial cells?

  • Hip and hop
  • Dock and lock
  • Pop and Lock

Q5. The docking process is mediated by ____________ expressed on CTCs and __________ expressed on endothelial cells

  • PD-L1 and PI3-K
  • carbohydrates and selectins
  • None of these options

Q6. Locking is mediated by __________ expressed on CTCs.

  • Sialyl-X
  • integrins

Q7. The process of a CTC exiting the circulation into a secondary site is called _____________?

  • intravasation
  • both of these options
  • extravasation

Q8. This process is aided by which cell type (discussed in this lecture).

  • Platelets
  • Erythrocytes
  • Sickle cells

Q9. CTCs that are successfully able to get into a secondary site are called __________.

  • Disseminated tumor cells (DTC)
  • none of these options
  • CTC

Q10. CTCs can circulate as __________ or _______________?

  • macrophages
  • Single Cells or clusters of cells
  • CTCs or MTCs

Q11. CTCs up-regulate ____________ that allows platelet activation and its association to CTCs

  • CIVA
  • none of these options

Q12. CTCs have the ability to up-regulate _____________ to promote monocyte recruitment and increase vascular permeabilization. Select all answers that apply.

  • none of these options
  • CCL2
  • EGFR/PI3-K

Dormancy and Secondary Tumor Growth Quiz Answers

Q1. Dormancy is:

  • Quiescence and reversible growth arrest
  • Reversible growth arrest
  • None of these options
  • Quiescence

Q2. Angiogenic dormancy refers to the inability of a tumor mass to undergo angiogenesis.

  • True
  • False

Q3. A patient undergoes surgery to remove a primary tumor. 20 years later they die without any evidence of cancer. What could be true?

  • Cells disseminated from the primary tumor before it was removed
  • All of these options
  • Cells never left the primary tumor
  • Cells disseminated to another location and died

Q4. Dormant cancer cells

  • Have decreased protein synthesis and increased DNA synthesis
  • Are only found in the bone
  • Have decreased protein synthesis
  • Have increased DNA synthesis

Q5. Clinical dormancy

  • Is a period of undetectable cancer after the primary tumor has been removed
  • None of these options
  • Is the period of metastatic outgrowth after the primary tumor has been removed
  • Refers to the time it takes for a primary tumor to cause pain to the patient

Q6. If a disseminated cell was unable to undergo dormancy

  • It may undergo apoptosis or it may proliferate into a metastasis
  • It may undergo apoptosis
  • It may proliferate into a metastasis
  • None of these options

Q7. Clinical cancer dormancy precedes cellular dormancy.

  • False
  • True

Q8. Which one is NOT a difference between quiescence and senescence?

  • Growth arrest in G2
  • Marked by beta-galactosidase
  • Can be identified by negative markers of proliferation
  • Reversible growth arrest

Q9. Why might a patient with a primary breast tumor end up with a bone metastasis, but not a liver metastasis?

  • The cancer cells homed to both sites but only proliferated in the bone
  • The cancer cells homed to both sites but died in the liver
  • The cancer cells only homed to the bone
  • All of these options could be true

Q10. It is possible for patients to die of their cancer if their tumor cells remain dormant.

  • True
  • False

Morbidity and Mortality Associated with Metastasis Quiz Answers

Q1. What cancer only rarely spreads to the bone?

  • Brain
  • Breast
  • Kidney
  • Prostate

Q2. What cancer only rarely spreads to the liver?

  • Brain
  • Colon
  • Stomach
  • Breast

Q3. Virchow’s triad refers to what 3 things?

  • Blood infection, blood clotting, bleeding
  • Endothelial injury, blood stasis, hypercoagulability
  • Cancer spreading, cancer growing, blood clotting
  • Bone fracture, blood clot, cancer spreading

Q4. Cancer cachexia results in?

  • Weight loss
  • Gain of muscle mass
  • Increased energy for the patient
  • Weight gain

Q5. Aesthenia is defined as:

  • Having a lot of energy
  • Feeling very strong
  • Putting people to sleep for surgery
  • abnormal physical weakness or lack of energy

Q6. Anorexia is defined as:

  • Putting people to sleep for surgery
  • Being hungry all of the time
  • Loss of appetite
  • A metastasis that has spread to the lung

Q7. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs):

  • Help destroy the extracellular matrix around a tumor
  • Build muscle
  • Build fat stores
  • Build bone

Q8. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha:

  • Is thought to contribute to cancer cachexia
  • Builds muscle
  • Builds bone
  • Builds fat stores

Q9. True or False: Metastasis is the major cause of cancer death.

  • False
  • True

Q10. True or False: Cachexia is often present when people die of cancer.

  • True
  • False
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