# Mindware: Critical Thinking for the Information Age Quiz Answers

## Get All Weeks Mindware: Critical Thinking for the Information Age Quiz Answers

### Week 1: Mindware: Critical Thinking for the Information Age Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Lesson 1 Quiz

Q1. From this list, choose the example that is a variable:

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1.The direction that the Earth rotates around the Sun
2.The distance from Los Angeles to El Paso
3.The number of hours of daylight in a day

Q2. From this list, choose the example that is a constant

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The number of whole tones (whole steps) in a major scale

Q3. What percent of cases are within -1 and +1 standard deviation?

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68%

Q4. What percent of cases are between -3 and +1 standard deviation?

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96%

Q5. Phoebe is at the 60th percentile in her math class and wants to hire a tutor who can help her perform in at least the 75th percentile. Tutor A helps students perform at .5 standard deviations above the class mean and charges \$10 per hour. Tutor B helps students perform at 1 standard deviation above the mean and charges \$12 per hour. Tutor C helps students perform at 2 standard deviations above the mean and charges \$15 per hour.

Which tutor helps Phoebe meet her goal without spending unnecessary money?

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Tutor B

Q6. An online instructor is providing a digital badge as an incentive to learners who score in the 85th percentile or higher on a module exam. The exam scores have a normal distribution, with a mean of 70 and a standard deviation of 8. What minimum score out of the options below would learners need to receive the digital badge?

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87

Q7. Ohio State’s introductory calculus class earns a mean score of 70 with a standard deviation of 12. Michigan’s identical introductory calculus class earns a mean score of 70 with a standard deviation of 8. Both schools test program MathX. At Ohio State, the test group’s mean performance rises to 76. At Michigan, it rises to 74.

Which of the following interpretations is valid?

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The effect of MathX training on the student’s scores is the same at both schools.

Q8. This (hypothetical) scatter shows data for MOOC X students. Which of the following statements correctly describes the scatterplot shown above?

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Most students who access fewer chapters have lower adjusted grades than most other students, and students who access more chapters have higher adjusted grades than most other students.

Q9. You can have reliability without validity.

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False

#### Quiz 2: Pre-lecture Reflection Prompt

Q1. Consider the scenario below and answer the follow-up question using what you already intuitively know about statistics. You will revisit this question at the end of this lesson, so keep a record of your response so that you can compare your response here to the follow-up question at the end of this lesson.

You have two acquaintances at work: JB and KL. At the office party on Saturday, JB was friendlier than KL. What’s the likelihood that JB will be friendlier than KL at the planning meeting on Monday? Give your reasoning to support your answer.

Now, imagine that over the last 20 times you dealt with JB and KL, JB was friendlier on average than KL. What do you suppose the likelihood would be of JB being friendlier than KL on average over the next 20 times you deal with them? Is the likelihood greater or less than the likelihood you reported for the above question? Why?

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1.There is no evidence to suggest that JB is more likely to be friendlier than KL at the planning meeting than he was at the office party. The fact that JB was friendlier at the office party does not mean that he will be friendlier at the planning meeting. It is just as likely that KL will be friendlier at the planning meeting.
2.If over the last 20 times I dealt with JB and KL, JB was friendlier on average than KL, then the likelihood of JB being friendlier than KL on average over the next 20 times I deal with them is greater than 50/50.
3.The fact that JB was friendlier on average over the last 20 times suggests that he is more likely to be friendlier than KL in the future. However, it is still possible that KL will be friendlier at some of the future interactions. The likelihood of JB being friendlier than KL on average over the next 20 times will depend on a number of factors, including the specific interactions that take place.
4.Here are some of the factors that could affect the likelihood of JB being friendlier than KL:
The topics that are discussed at the meetings
The personalities of the people involved
The circumstances of the meetings
If the meetings are focused on topics that JB is interested in, or if the people involved are more likely to get along with JB, then the likelihood of JB being friendlier than KL will be higher. Similarly, if the meetings are stressful or difficult, then the likelihood of JB being friendlier than KL will be lower.
Ultimately, the likelihood of JB being friendlier than KL at the planning meeting on Monday is impossible to say with certainty. However, the fact that he was friendlier on average over the last 20 times suggests that it is more likely than not that he will be friendlier at the next meeting.

#### Quiz 3: Pre-lecture Quiz

Q1. For each of the hypothetical research questions below, select the items where a random sample of 100 would be much more informative than a random sample of 10 (in contrast to only slightly more informative) if your research objective is to determine:

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The average height of males in the US

#### Quiz 4: Lesson 2 Quiz

Q1. Sample values resemble population values as a _ of their size. The _ the sample, the less likely it is you will get an unrepresentative value.

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Portion, smaller

Q2. We tend to go from an observation to a ___

Hint: It is a one-word answer that ends in “…tion”

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Induction

Q3. Of the following examples, what would be a situation where the Law of Large numbers would help you make better decisions or assumptions:

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The number of complaints that a customer service office receives in a day

Q4. If we are trying to infer something about a population that has a lot of variability, the smaller the sample, the more likely it is to get a result that doesn’t represent the population distribution.

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True

Q5. If we are trying to infer something about a population that has a lot of variability, small samples representing a population can never be as accurate as larger samples.

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False

Q6. (Check all the answers that apply.)

For personality traits like friendliness, people:

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1.Are too quick to generalize
2.Assume too little variability

#### Quiz 5: Post-lecture Reflection Prompt

Q1. Using what you know about the law of large numbers, re-evaluate the scenarios that you considered prior to watching the video.

The last time you visited your boss in his office, he was extremely irritable. What do you suppose the likelihood would be of him being irritable the next time you go to his office? Give your reasoning to support your answer.

Now imagine that the last twenty times you visited your boss, he was extremely irritable. What do you suppose the likelihood would be of him being irritable the next twenty times you go to his office and why?

How has your understanding changed since learning about the law of large numbers?

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1.The last time you visited your boss in his office, he was extremely irritable. What do you suppose the likelihood would be of him being irritable the next time you go to his office?
2.Now imagine that the last twenty times you visited you boss, he was extremely irritable. What do you suppose the likelihood would be of him being irritable the next twenty times you go to his office and why?
3.How has your understanding changed since learning about the law of large numbers?

### Week 2: Mindware: Critical Thinking for the Information Age Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1:Lesson 3 Quiz

Q1. A group of researchers are looking to see if there is a correlation between having X trait and having allergies. Given the table below, what ratios must be compared to determine the presence of an association between X trait and having allergies?

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10/60 and 20/25

Q2. What term accounts for the fact that when we are prepared to see an association we are more likely to see it?

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Illusory correlation

Q3. A variable that is associated with both variables of interest and which could explain the association between them is called a(n) __ variable.

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Confounding

Q4. What is the term defining the probability that a result at least as extreme as the one obtained could have occurred given that there is in fact no relationship?

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Statistical significance

Q5. Explain the statistical significance of a finding when p<.003

The probability that the result could have been obtained even if there is actually no relationship is less than _ in _.

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3; 1000

#### Quiz 2: Lesson 4 Quiz

Q1. Correlation is just as good as an experiment at determining causality.

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False

Q2. The treatment in an experiment is considered the _. The thing that is measured in an experiment is considered the _.

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independent variable; dependent variable

Q3. Shortly after the new CEO took over Company Z, its stocks began to fall. John blames the change in stock value on poor management by the CEO. Why does John not have enough information to draw this conclusion (besides having a small sample size of one company)?

What do you think? Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

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Here are some reasons why John does not have enough information to draw the conclusion that the change in stock value is due to poor management by the CEO:
1.There could be other factors that caused the change in stock value, such as changes in the economy or in the industry.
2.The change in stock value may not be permanent. It is possible that the stock price will go back up in the future.
3.John only has data for one company. He needs to look at data from a larger number of companies to make a more reliable conclusion.

Q4. Many control variables in multiple regression analysis have very high validity but very low reliability.

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False

Q5. The method referred to as the Gold Standard Experiment is stronger than multiple regression analysis.

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True

Q6. Benny wants to know if playing classical music or country music is better for memory, so to test both treatments, he flips a coin to determine which type of music he will listen to first and then perform the following tests:

1. On Monday he plays classical music while trying to memorize a list of ten words.
2. On Tuesday he tests himself and records his results.
3. On Wednesday he plays country music while trying to memorize a new list of ten words.
4. On Thursday he tests himself on the new words and records his results.

What type of testing is Benny implementing?

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In a within-subjects design, the same participants are exposed to all of the treatments. This is in contrast to a between-subjects design, in which different participants are exposed to different treatments.

Q7. Referring to the question above, does Benny’s experiment have a “within design” or “between design”?

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Within design

Q8. In “within designs,” the only thing that differs across treatments is:

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The treatments

Q9. In “between designs,” the treatments differ, but so do:

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The participants

Q10. The next few questions relate to the following scenario:

Kaiping has a hypothesis that eating dark chocolate before an exam will help students test better. She has the 26 students in Ms. Claude’s class eat dark chocolate before their calculus exam and the 32 students in Mr. Green’s class eat nothing before their calculus exam.

What is the independent variable?

What do you think? Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

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1.The independent variable is whether or not the students eat dark chocolate before the exam.
2.The dependent variable is the students’ performance on the calculus exam.
3.The experimental condition is the group of students who eat dark chocolate before the exam.
4.The control condition is the group of students who do not eat dark chocolate before the exam.

Q11. What is the dependent variable?

What do you think? Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

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The independent variable is the treatment that the participants receive. In this case, the treatment is whether or not the participants eat dark chocolate before the exam.

Q12. Which class is in the experimental condition?

What do you think? Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

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The dependent variable is the outcome that is being measured. In this case, the outcome is the participants’ performance on the calculus exam

Q13. Which class is in the control condition?

What do you think? Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

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The experimental condition is the group of participants who receive the treatment. In this case, the experimental condition is the group of students who eat dark chocolate before the exam.

### Week 3: Mindware: Critical Thinking for the Information Age Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Lesson 5 Quiz

Q1. Your mom tells you that she started eating dandelions and her stomach pains went away. Tell her why the dandelions may not be responsible for her decrease in stomach pain.

What do you think? Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

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Dandelions may not be responsible for the decrease in stomach pain for several reasons. Stomach pains can have various causes, and their intensity can fluctuate naturally. Without controlled scientific studies, it’s challenging to attribute the relief solely to dandelion consumption. Factors such as stress, dietary changes, or other coincidental factors could have played a role. It’s crucial for your mom to consult a healthcare professional to determine the actual cause of her stomach pain and explore appropriate treatments.

Q2. This shows the normal distribution of the test scores of students in Mr. Lin’s class. Mr. Lin’s top student Berta scored a 90. What do you predict her best friend Nadia scored if the correlation between friends’ test scores is .00?

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50

Scenario 1: Your apartment building is full of rambunctious children. 70% of the children are from the second floor and 30% of the children are from the third floor. You wake up to find the newspaper outside of your door has been stolen. Your neighbor says she saw a child from the third floor running down the hallway.

Scenario 2: Your apartment building only allows dogs and cats in the building. 70% of the pets are dogs and 30% of the pets are cats. You wake up to find that the newspaper outside of your door has been torn to shreds. You know that dogs are known to cause four times more disturbances regarding newspapers than cats. Your neighbor says she saw a cat running down the hallway.

Which scenario do you think allows for more accurate estimates of the probability regarding who or what was responsible for the disturbance with your newspaper? Why?

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Scenario 2

Q4. You just tested positive for a rare disease and want to know what the chances are of you actually having the disease. You know that out of 100 people, 10 people have the disease. 6 of the people who have the disease will test positive (60% of the people with the disease). 9 of the people who do not have the disease will incorrectly test positive (10% of the people who don’t have the disease). What is the probability that you actually have the disease, given that you tested positive?

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6 / (6 + 9)

#### Quiz 2: Pre-lecture Quiz

Q1. What do you need to know to find out if there’s a correlation between vaccination and autism?

To determine if there is a correlation between vaccination and autism, you would need to conduct rigorous scientific research and consider various factors. Here are the key elements to consider:

1. Study Design: The study should be designed appropriately to investigate the potential correlation. It should be a well-controlled, longitudinal study with a sufficiently large sample size. Randomized controlled trials or cohort studies are often used.
2. Data Collection: Collect data on vaccination history and autism diagnoses for the study participants. Ensure accurate and complete records of vaccinations, including the type of vaccine, date of administration, and any adverse events.
3. Control Group: Establish a control group of individuals who are similar to the vaccinated group in all aspects except for vaccination. This group can help determine whether the observed correlation is specific to vaccination.
4. Data Analysis: Use statistical analysis methods to assess the correlation. Common statistical tests include chi-square tests, regression analysis, or more advanced methods like propensity score matching.
5. Confounding Variables: Consider and control for potential confounding variables, such as genetic predisposition, family history, and other environmental factors that could influence autism risk. Statistical techniques like multivariate analysis can help control for these variables.

#### Quiz 3: Lesson 6 Quiz

Q1. What term describes the belief that we understand the world by direct perception?

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Illusion of objectivity

Q2. Our perceptual system is highly accurate for an artificial world but not for the real world.

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False

Q3. What term describes cognitive structures that guide our understanding of the world?

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Schemas

Q4. Where would people be more likely to vote for increased welfare?

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A polling station next to a soup kitchen

Q5. What term describes mental shortcuts or rules of thumb that help us to understand the world but that can sometimes also lead us astray?

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Heuristics

Q6. When people estimate the frequency or probability of events using the cue of how easily the type of event comes to mind, they are using what heuristic?

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Availability heuristic

Q7. The best predictor of future behavior is past behavior.

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True

Q8. What term describes the tendency to mistakenly regard a disposition of the object or person as the primary cause of behavior, while ignoring important situational or contextual factors?

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Q9. What term refers to the fact that we often look only for evidence that could confirm the hypothesis and not for evidence that might disconfirm it?

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Confirmation bias

Q10. What do you need to know to find out if there’s an association between getting up early and being in a good mood for most of the day?

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1.Define what you mean by “getting up early” and “being in a good mood.”
2.Collect data from a representative sample of individuals, including their wake-up times and their reported mood throughout the day.
3.Analyze the data statistically to identify any correlations or associations between waking up early and having a good mood.
4.Consider potential confounding variables, such as sleep quality, daily routines, and overall health, that could influence the results.
5.Conduct the study over a significant period to account for daily variations.

What do you think? Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

Q11. What do you need to know to find out if there’s an association between doing drugs and dropping out of high school?

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1.Define what you mean by “doing drugs” (e.g., types of drugs, frequency of use) and “dropping out of high school.”
2.Collect data from a representative sample of high school students, including information on their drug use and educational outcomes.
3.Analyze the data statistically to identify any correlations or associations between drug use and dropping out of high school.
4.Consider potential confounding variables, such as socioeconomic status, family environment, and academic performance, that could influence the results.
5.Conduct the study longitudinally to track changes over time and determine if drug use precedes dropping out or vice versa.

What do you think? Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

### Week 4: Mindware: Critical Thinking for the Information Age Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Pre-lecture Activity

Q1. You bought a \$100 ticket to a basketball game when the league standings seemed likely to hang on this game and the star was going to be playing. Tonight’s the night, but the star is not playing, nothing is actually going to hang on the outcome, and the stadium is 40 minutes away and it’s starting to snow.

What’s the best reason to go to the game?

What’s the best reason not to go?

What do you think? Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

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1.Best Reason to Go to the Game: The best reason to go to the game in this situation would be to enjoy the live experience of attending a basketball game, even if the star player is not playing and the outcome doesn’t significantly impact the standings. You can still appreciate the atmosphere, support the team, and spend quality time with friends or fellow fans. It’s an opportunity for entertainment and camaraderie.
2.Best Reason Not to Go: The best reason not to go to the game could be due to safety concerns and inconvenience. If the stadium is 40 minutes away and it’s starting to snow, driving in adverse weather conditions can be dangerous. Additionally, considering that the star player is not playing and the game doesn’t hold high stakes, you might decide that the effort and cost of attending do not justify the experience, especially if you have safety concerns.

Q2. You’ve ordered an expensive meal that turns out to be not good. Should you finish it?

What’s the best reason to do so?

What’s the best reason not to do so?

What do you think? Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

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1.Best Reason to Finish the Meal: The best reason to finish the meal might be to avoid wasting food and money. You’ve already paid for the expensive meal, and by finishing it, you ensure that the resources used to prepare the meal are not wasted. Additionally, if you’re dining in a restaurant, it’s a way to avoid additional expenses on ordering another dish. If the meal is not terrible but just not to your taste, you could still eat it to avoid food wastage.
2.Best Reason Not to Finish the Meal: The best reason not to finish the meal would be if it’s genuinely not good, and continuing to eat it would lead to discomfort or dissatisfaction. If the quality of the food is subpar or if it’s causing you to feel unwell, it’s better to stop eating for your own well-being. Additionally, if you’re in a situation where you have other options or can request a replacement dish, it might be more enjoyable to choose an alternative that suits your preferences. In such cases, quality and enjoyment should take precedence over avoiding food waste.

#### Quiz 2: Lesson 7 Quiz

Q1. Cognitive dissonance occurs when our beliefs don’t fit with our __.

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actions

Q2. It is always best to optimize when making choices.

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False

Q3. Using an example from your own life, perform your own weighted decision. (You may use the templates provided below.)

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(.docx)

What do you think? Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

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if you have a specific decision or scenario in mind that you’d like assistance with, please provide the details, and I’ll be happy to offer guidance on how to approach the decision-making process.

Q4. According to the Sunk Cost Principle, __ benefits and costs should figure in your choices

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only future

Q5. If you do not choose the action with the greatest net benefit, you will pay unnecessary _.

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Opportunity costs

Q6. What term accounts for when people demand more money for something than they originally paid for it?

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Endowment effect

Q7. You recently started up your own clothing website. Customers must create an account in order to view your clothing options, and one of the questions they need to answer is whether or not they want weekly updates sent to their email addresses. In order to deliver information about your latest arrivals to the most customers, would it be better to ask customers:

“Please check the box below if you would like weekly information about our latest arrivals?” [Opt in]

or

“Please check the box below if you would not like weekly information about our latest arrivals?” [Opt out]

Why?

What do you think? Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

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This choice is based on the principle of default bias or status quo bias. People tend to stick with the default option or the status quo, which in this case would be not receiving weekly updates. By framing the question as an opt-out option, you are more likely to reach a broader audience because people are more inclined to leave things as they are rather than actively opting in. This approach maximizes the number of customers receiving updates while respecting their preferences.

#### Quiz 3: Pre-lecture Quiz

Q1. Determine whether or not you think each of the following arguments is valid.

If I have the flu, then I have a sore throat. I have a sore throat. Therefore, I have the flu.

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Not valid

Q2. If the movie is not a comedy, then Joe did not see it. The movie is not a comedy. Therefore, Joe did not see it.

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Not valid

Q3. If President Obama is Muslim, then he’s not a Christian. President Obama is not Muslim. Therefore, President Obama is a Christian.

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Not valid

Q4. If it’s a holiday, the bank will be closed. The bank is closed. Therefore, it’s a holiday.

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Not valid

#### Quiz 4: Lesson 8 Quiz

Q1. All black cats are male. This cat is black. Therefore, this cat is a male.

This is an example of _.

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Syllogism

Q2. If I eat peanut butter, I will get hives. I ate peanut butter. Therefore, I will get hives.

This is an example of _.

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Propositional logic

Q3. If a conclusion is valid, then it is also true.

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False

Q4. Determine if the major (first) premise is sufficient or necessary and sufficient in order for the conclusion to be valid.

If I break my leg, I will wear a cast. I broke my leg. Therefore, I will wear a cast.

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Sufficient

Q5. You may recognize the next few arguments from before the lecture. They are not valid. Now determine if these arguments are not valid due to a converse or inverse error.

If I have the flu, then I have a sore throat. I have a sore throat. Therefore, I have the flu.

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Converse

Q6. If President Obama is Muslim, then he’s not a Christian. President Obama is not Muslim. Therefore, President Obama is a Christian.

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Converse

Q7. If it’s a holiday, the bank will be closed. The bank is closed. Therefore, it’s a holiday.

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Inverse

Q8. The Law of Large Numbers, regression, statistical significance, etc., are all types of reasoning discussed in this course that are deductively valid.

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False

Q9. Which form of thinking would be more likely to support the statement: “Contradiction is constant since change is constant.”

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Principles of dialecticism

Q10. Which form of thinking would be more likely to support the statement: “Everything must either be or not be.”

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Foundations of logic