Table of Contents
Get All Global Health at the Human-Animal-Ecosystem Interface Quiz Answers
Q1. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the importance of One Health in Global Health?
- The so-called weak spot in the cycle of transmission of a zoonotic infection is always at the human level
- Epidemiological investigations based on the One Health approach analyze comprehensively the cycle of transmission of infection to identify the so-called weak spot of the system
- Vaccinating humans is more cost-effective for tackling zoonotic diseases such as rabies or MERS-CoV
- The One Health approach is key to addressing Global Health challenges at the human-animal-ecosystem interface such as emerging zoonotic diseases
- One Health brings vets and zoologists more prominently to the Global Health arena
Q2. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the areas of common interest and collaboration of the so-called Tripartite Alliance?
- Zoonoses are the primary area for collaboration between the Tripartite Alliance
- The three priority areas of collaboration of the Tripartite Alliance are: Rabies, Avian Influenza and Ebola
- Food security but not food safety is an area of collaboration of the Tripartite Alliance
- The fight against antimicrobial resistance has become a priority for the Tripartite Alliance
- The Tripartite Alliance uses the One Health approach, which implies that the mandate of WHO (World Health Organisation) is to protect animal health
Q3. In the context of a zoonotic threat, which of the following statements is/are correct concerning joint cross-sectoral health risk assessments?
- Joint cross-sectoral health risk assessments involve primarily collaboration of the public health sector and animal health sector
- Joint cross-sectoral health risk assessments rely on computer-based information-sharing systems that are only available in the most developed countries
- Joint cross-sectoral health risk assessments can help to identify gaps in necessary information
- Governmental support and openness for collaboration between Ministries is key for joint cross-sectoral health risk assessments at the national level
- Defining risk questions is a key step in the risk assessment and these questions should be as broad as possible to cover any unexpected circumstances during the health crisis
Q4. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the links between human health and the health of our planet?
- Biodiversity conservation advocacy can be reinforced by the need to protect human health
- The World Health Organisation (WHO) together with the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) have jointly produced the unprecedented review Connecting Global Priorities: Biodiversity and Human Health, a State of Knowledge Review
- 23% of global deaths are linked to the environment and these deaths are not preventable
- Food biodiversity is the central component of quality diet and food security
- Planetary health refers to the interdependence between human health and health of the natural systems on which it depends
Q5. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning global trade of food animals and its regulation?
- Global trade of food animals is regulated by the OIE (International Organisation of Animal Health)
- WTO (World Trade Organisation) governs the global trade of food animals and their health standards have been largely driven by the implications of these animals in the transmission and spread of diseases around the world
- The sanitary risks of the global trade of food animals come from the transportation of living animals, not from animal products
- Trade of food animals mainly occurs by air transportation
- In the context of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement, WTO (World Trade Organisation) member states can integrate global recommendations in the national regulatory frameworks
Quiz 01: Graded quiz on “Emerging Infectious Diseases”
Q1. Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove from Institut Pasteur describes her research experiences in live-poultry markets in Southeast Asia. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning epidemiological investigations in the context of zoonotic outbreaks?
- All the other responses are correct
- Serological tests are performed on humans in close contact with animals to search for antibodies that could indicate their exposure to the infection
- Surface swabbing is not performed in outbreak investigations in poultry markets because viruses are not viable in the environment
- Spill-over of zoonotic viruses from animals to humans is relatively rare and therefore human cases are highly relevant to identify risky human-animal interactions
- The One Health approach is central to epidemiological investigations of zoonotic outbreaks, where humans, animals, and the environment should be screened for the presence of the emerging pathogen
Q2. According to the discussion with Dr Marc Jouan, which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the organisation and mission of Institut Pasteur and its global network?
- After the Ebola epidemic in 2014-2015, a new Institute Pasteur has joined the network in Liberia
- The One Health approach is part of the working principles of the Institute Pasteur
- During an outbreak, Institute Pasteur provides expertise in infection biology and innovative diagnostic tools but not in public health, which relies on the government of the affected country
- Institut Pasteur is a global network of 33 research institutions with its headquarters in Paris (France)
- One of the common goals of all institutes within the network is to build local capacity to perform cutting-edge research in infectious diseases and to apply it to public health interventions
Q3. IHR 3.0 Simulator (or Simulator RSI 3.0 in French) is being developed by a consortium of European public Universities and in consultation with the World Health Organisation. Which of the following statements is/are also correct concerning the IHR 3.0 Simulator?
- IHR 3.0 Simulator is focused on public health crises of an infectious nature
- The IHR 3.0 Simulator is a role-playing game that involves WHO and national governments directly or indirectly affected during a public health emergency of international concern
- IHR 3.0 Simulator is an e-learning tool that targets primarily WHO national focal points
- In the IHR 3.0 Simulator, the user plays the role of “Director General of WHO” with the task of coordinating all the departments of WHO during a health crisis
- IHR 3.0 Simulator is a “serious game” where the player’s goal is to prevent the spill-over of infections from animals to humans
Q4. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the disease ecology of the Nipah virus in Cambodia and the way researchers study bat populations in the field?
- Pigs are the primary natural reservoir of Nipah virus in Cambodia
- Bats of the genus Pteropus are frugivorous and roost in trees in Cambodia
- Oral and rectal swabs from bats allow direct detection of the virus, while blood samples are used to perform serological analysis, which informs about previous exposure to the infection
- Culling bats has been shown to be the most cost-effective method to block the transmission of Nipah virus
- The reproductive activity of bats is highly synchronic and the annual peak in the prevalence of the Nipah virus matches with the arrival of new young and naïve individuals to the population
Q5. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the human-bats interface in Cambodia and the study of Nipah virus spill-over?
- Farmers and other agricultural workers are the group at the highest risk of contracting the Nipah virus
- The foraging behavior of bats can inform about opportunities for virus spill-over
- Rabies and Nipah virus disease are well recognised by local communities in Cambodia
- Bats can get in close contact with domestic animals and the Nipah virus is usually transmitted from bats to ducks and then to humans
- In epidemiological investigations, anthropologists study the way local communities perceive bats and how they interact with them in their daily lives
Q6. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and the need for collaborative approaches for their study and control?
- All vector-borne diseases are transmitted from wild vertebrates to humans, and therefore zoologists and vets must be included in interdisciplinary research teams
- Entomologists study the ecology of mosquitoes providing key information for public health interventions targeting mosquito population control
- The fact that Anopheles is an urban mosquito while Aedes is rural, limits the application of lessons learnt from the regional elimination of Malaria to Chikungunya
- In the fight against VBDs, transdisciplinary approaches are more complete than interdisciplinary ones because they involve both different disciplines and sectors
- Chikungunya is a bacterial disease and therefore bacteriologists must be part of interdisciplinary research teams
Q7. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the importance of understanding animal behaviour in the context of Global Health?
- Migratory stopovers can bring opportunities for spillover of pathogens from wild to domestic birds
- Avian influenza cannot be spread through migration because infected individuals do not migrate
- Some parasites can induce behavioural changes in their insect hosts
- Aggressive dog behaviour is unpredictable
- Behavioural ecologists can help epidemiologists and public health experts to understand the whole biological cycle of a parasite
Q8. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the contributions of social anthropology to the fight against emerging infections?
- In many rural communities of Central Africa, local knowledge on human-animal socio-ecology is based on traditional beliefs, which makes it irrelevant for epidemiological investigations
- In social anthropology, lay knowledge refers to the vulgarisation and dissemination of epidemiological results among rural communities at the frontline of the emergence
- Lay knowledge complements empirical evidence for a broader understanding of socio-ecological systems and the spread of infections
- The integration of lay knowledge in epidemiological investigations can be viewed as part of the cross-sectoral approach in One Health
- Social and medical anthropologists help to integrate local knowledge of human-animal socio-ecology to help epidemiologists in the identification of the source of the emergence
Q9. According to Dr. Geoffroy Mauvais, which of the following statements are correct concerning the link between conservation and health?
- Limiting close contact with wild animals will prevent all zoonotic diseases in humans.
- Conservation may seem disconnected from health because of differences in expertise and the absence of common space, but can actually support health strategies.
- Solutions for human-wildlife conflict management lie in abatement of their consequences.
- Nature is a potential source of various diseases, but also provides cures for most of them.
- Conservation efforts should only target animals that are on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Q10. According to Dr. Geoffroy Mauvais, which of the following statements are correct concerning the reversed spillover of disease?
- Control measures should only be carried out for expensive species.
- The Ebola epidemic is an example of a reversed spill-over.
- There are examples of diseases transmitted to wildlife by cattle brought from another continent.
- Strict control is crucial to prevent further dissemination of the disease, especially during transportation of animals.
- There is a possibility of spill-over of various diseases from wildlife to humans and domestic animals, and vice versa
Quiz 01: Graded quiz on “Antimicrobial Resistance & Zoonotic Foodborne Infectious Diseases”
Q1. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the burden of Antimicrobial Resistance and its threat for Global Health?
- Antimicrobial resistance makes infections more difficulty to treat, which involves additional economic costs for health systems at the global scale
- The global burden of Antimicrobial Resistance may be underestimated because of the lack of information for certain countries of the world
- Antimicrobial resistance refers to the fact that humans are becoming resistant to bacterial infections
- Antimicrobial resistance emerges from the animal sector in developing countries and the human sector in developed countries
- According to the recent O’Neill report, 10 million people could die in Europe from antimicrobial resistance infections by 2050
Q2. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the WHO Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance?
- WHO Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance was developed and adopted by WHO in 2015 with the support of FAO but not of OIE
- The One Health approach is recognised in the WHO Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance
- The WHO Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance will be adapted nationally and each country will develop its specific plan by 2017
- The implementation of the WHO Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance requires that countries have the same capacity to tackle antimicrobial resistance
- Malaria and HIV are not considered in the WHO Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance because there is a focus on antibiotics and resistant-bacterial infections such as TB
Q3. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the integrated surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance as illustrated by CIPARS in Canada?
- Because human salmonellosis is a reportable disease in Canada, there is no issues in getting isolate from all people actually suffering of salmonellosis
- It is easy to document the impact of antimicrobial use in food animals on antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens
- The data on antimicrobial use is easily collected and converted into value meaningful and directly comparable between humans and animals
- The active surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in food animals is a plus but it is not required since passive surveillance always provides data from food animals
- Based on the Salmonella Heidelberg-ceftiofur story, it can take less than one year for a large change in antimicrobial use in young chicken to impact the antimicrobial resistance in human Salmonella
Q4. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the global burden of AMR and its clinical implications?
- Second and third line antibiotics are expensive and usually not available in developing countries
- Prevention and infection control measures in clinical settings are ineffective for multi-drug resistance bacteria
- Resistant bacteria infections are the current most important cause of the death in the United States
- Antimicrobial resistance brings an additional complication to the fight against nosocomial infections around the world
- Nosocomial infections are caused by pan-resistant bacteria, which are untreatable
Q5. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant Salmonella Kentucky ?
- Poultry is the principal reservoir of multi-drug resistant Salmonella Kentucky but other animals such as pigs can be secondary vehicles
- Multi-drug resistant Salmonella Kentucky emerged in a hospital in Egypt and spread to France with infected patients
- The distribution of multi-drug resistant Salmonella Kentucky is limited to developing and emerging countries in Africa and Asia, which lack fluoroquinolones to kill the bacteria
- Resistant Salmonella Kentucky emerged from the animal sector
- Multi-drug resistant Salmonella Kentucky is resistant to all antibiotics except for carbapenems
Q6. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the integrated surveillance of human enteric diseases as illustrated by FoodNet Canada ?
- Using the same laboratory tests for all kinds of samples is an asset when comparing results from the various sectors (i.e. animal, food, human, and environment)
- The epidemiology of zoonotic enteric diseases is complicated and their surveillance requires the surveillance of each reservoir and route of transmission
- Surveillance is the continuous, systematic collection and analysis of data and the dissemination of results to decision-makers in disease management at the population level
- The interest of sentinel site surveillance is a better geographical representativeness of the data collected
- Using a standardized sampling frame similar across all sentinel sites and over years is an asset for surveillance
Quiz 01: Graded quiz on “Zoonotic Neglected Infectious Diseases”
Q1. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the so-called WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)?
- The One Health approach is applicable to rabies but not to other NTDs
- NTDs are a subset of infectious diseases restricted to Tropical areas of the world
- Most NTDs can be jointly prevented through actions that promote healthier environments
- NTDs are a proxy to describe poverty
- NTDs include a group 18 zoonotic diseases and therefore the One Health approach is very relevant to tackling them
Q2. According to experiences in rabies control in Kuazulu-Natal in South Africa, which of the following factors is/are important for success?
- Use the One Health thinking and evaluate all levels of your system
- Get high-level international support to draw political attention to rabies at the national level
- Inform the community and involve it through education and training
- Identify so-called champions and limit their implications
- Be general in your intervention and apply the same actions to different communities across the country
Q3. According to Dr. H. Bourhy (Institut Pasteur), what are some of the major research priorities for improving the control of Rabies?
- Develop innovative strategies for dog culling in both urban and rural areas
- Improve our understanding of the movements of dog populations and their exposure to flies transmitting the rabies virus
- Improve epidemiological surveillance to collect better data on the burden of rabies
- Improve our understanding of the pathobiology of rabies and the drivers of virus spill-over
- Improve awareness among the population to promote mass dog vaccination
Q4. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the prevention of rabies in human in the context of Nunavik (Canada) ?
- The uncontrolled reproduction of dogs in Nunavik is one of the key obstacles in reducing the risk to human health related to dogs in Nunavik
- The responsibility of reducing the risk of rabies in humans is in the hands of the public health authorities in Nunavik
- Keeping all dogs properly vaccinated against rabies is the solution to reduce the risk of human rabies in Nunavik
- The use of dogs by Inuit has changed in Nunavik, Quebec
- The One Health and the EcoHealth approaches are required together
Q5. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning Tunisian public health interventions in the fight against cutaneous leishmaniasis?
- In the control of the disease, treatment of infected patients is not a public health priority because of the low human mortality rate of leishmaniasis
- Cutaneous leishmaniasis affects only a restricted area at the center of Tunisia, which makes the control of the disease relatively easy
- Reducing the prevalence and incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans is possible through actions on the habitat of the reservoir
- Epidemiological surveillance and treatment of infected patients are key in the national public health strategy to control cutaneous leishmaniasis
- Ecological systems are resilient and therefore sustainability of public health interventions can be key for the elimination of leishmaniosis
Q6. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the impact of Zoonotic TB?
- M bovis can resist to pyrazinamide
- There are 9.6 million new cases of zoonotic TB every year in the world
- M bovis infection is typically restricted to the lungs
- The diagnosis of zoonotic TB in humans is well-developed and effective, but treating it is challenging due to antibiotic resistance
- The tools for differential diagnosis of zoonotic TB and TB are limited and infections by M bovis can be confounded with M tuberculosis
Quiz 01: Graded quiz on “Conflict and Injuries”
Q1. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the management of protected areas and the human-wildlife conflicts around them?
- The management of protected areas aims at conserving biodiversity and maintaining live-support ecosystem services
- Human-wildlife conflicts around protected areas in Burkina Faso concern mainly lions and their potential to prey on humans
- Elephants can be responsible for human food insecurity in certain regions of Africa
- Mobile phones are currently being used in Africa to chase away baboons threatening tourists
- Human populations and their domestic animals cannot be excluded in the management of protected areas and their wildlife
Q2. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the global burden of snakebite?
- Snakebite causes about 120 000 human deaths every year in the world
- Snakebite causes about 2.5 million human deaths every year in the world
- The recognition of snakebite as a global health issue is dramatically low if we compare it with its relatively high global burden
- Snakebite causes about 5 million human deaths every year in the world
- The burden of snakebite is highly underestimated
Q3. Sub-Saharan Africa and other poor areas of the world are facing the so called snakebite crisis. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning snakebite and the associated crisis?
- Case fatality rate associated with snakebite is higher in hospitals than at the community level because traditional medicine is more effective than snake antivenom
- Snakebite is part of the list of so-called Neglected Tropical Diseases
- “Doctors Without Borders” works to tackle the absence of or inaccessibility to polyvalent snake antivenom in Sub-Saharan Africa
- Snakebite is responsible for thousands of deaths every year in Sub-Saharan Africa
- Data from hospitals provide an underestimation of the real incidence of snakebite at the community level
Q4. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the burden of snakebite in livestock in Costa Rica?
- At the national level in Costa Rica, the number of cattle envenomation by fer-de-lance goes up to 10,000
- If not treated, fer-de-lance envenomation can cause death of cattle in some of hours
- Fer-de-lance is a tree snake and it usually bites cows on their back
- In Costa Rica, pigs are the most affected animals by bites from fer-de-lance
- Fer-de-lance is responsible for the majority of envenomation in cattle in Costa Rica
Quiz 02: Graded quiz on “Innovation and Opportunities”
Q1. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning Digital Epidemiology and Traditional Epidemiology ?
- Digital epidemiology and traditional epidemiology coincide in their goals but differ in their methods of collecting and analysing data
- Digital epidemiology has recently replaced traditional epidemiology because they cannot be complementary in a globalised and interconnected world
- Predictions from digital epidemiology are innacurate because they rely on data coming from social media such as Twitter
- Digital epidemiology provides a better understanding of the spatiotemporal evolution of the level of awareness by the population on an emerging infection
- Digital epidemiology can make epidemiology more relevant for Global Health
Q2. According to the discussion with Prof Grey (UNIGE), which of the following statements is/are correct concerning Citizen Science and Crowdsourcing ?
- Crowdsourcing can be applied to objectives that are not scientific
- The field of health has traditionally attracted a lot of citizen participation, but thanks to the web this is being extended to new scientific fields such as ornithology
- Crowdsourcing relies on web technologies, smartphones, etc., and is a relatively young concept
- Citizen science refers to the non-professional participation of amateurs in scientific projects
- The biggest challenge of citizen science and crowdsourcing is to attract public participation and sustain it over time
Quiz 01: Graded Quiz on “Health Benefits at the Human-Animal-Ecosystem Interface”
Q1. According to Dr. Estelle Fourat, which of the following statements are correct concerning the nutrition transition and the example of India?
- Only some of the Indian castes are officially allowed to consume meat products.
- Changes in diet are closely associated with changes in social norms and values regarding specific food products.
- The system of castes in India indirectly predetermines following a vegetarian or a non-vegetarian diet.
- India is a common example of a nutrition transition from plant proteins to meat and poultry.
- Nutrition transition implies the replacement of plant proteins with animal proteins and occurs along with economic development.
Q2. According to Dr. Martin Schlaepfer, which of the following statements are correct concerning the link between ecosystem services and health?
- Access to nature is crucial for the psychological well-being of urban and suburban citizens.
- Health risk reduction always prioritizes long-term goals over short-term ones.
- Health systems impact environmental services, and vice versa.
- Ecosystem services are ecological functions and goods that contribute to human well-being.
- Nature affects the health of all people in an equal manner.
- Health, terrestrial, and aquatic ecosystems are directly and obviously interlinked within the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals.
Q3. According to Dr. Dennis Turner, which of the following are the benefits of owning a companion animal for human health?
- Lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease
- Decreased probability of facing health costs
- Less physician consultations
- Reduced feelings of anger and aggression
- Fewer complaints about minor health issues
- Increased endurance and fitness level
- Improved quality of life
- Increased social interactions with other people
- Higher survival rates of heart attack patients
Q4. Which of the following statements are correct concerning the “Hygiene hypothesis” introduced by Dr. Caroline Roduit?
- Consuming cow milk from early childhood can lead to metabolic disorders.
- Growing on a farm or with pets can potentially protect against developing allergic diseases in adulthood.
- Contact with farm animals should be forbidden for children under the age of 5 due to possible exposure to zoonotic diseases.
- Exposure to fewer microbes decreases the chances of developing allergies and asthma.
- Children from large families are less vulnerable to certain types of diseases, such as atopic dermatitis.
Q5. According to Dr. Jean Simos, which of the following statements are correct concerning Environmental health?
- The understanding of the linkage between environment and health was present since ancient times.
- Environmental hazards account for around 25% of the global burden of disease.
- The hygienist movement introduced major changes to urban planning.
- The burden of diseases due to environmental issues is larger in developed countries.
- Environmental health is limited to environmental disasters.
- It is relatively easy to determine the exact link between exposure to various environmental factors and consequences for human health.
Quiz 01: Graded Quiz on “Management of Ecosystems under Global Changes”
Q1. According to Ms. Villalobos Prats, what should be done to protect health from global environmental change in a gender-responsive manner?
(There may be multiple correct/applicable responses, and all need to be selected)
- Include gender agenda in environmental health programs
- Collect sex-disaggregated data
- Understand different gender-specific health risks
- Promote gender-specific health impact assessments
- Include gender analysis in the assessment of environmental vulnerability
- Encourage women`s leadership in biodiversity conservation programs
- Promote participation of women in agriculture
Q2. According to Dr. Francesco Branca, which of the following statements are correct concerning the linkage between health and nutrition?
- Maternal and child malnutrition accounts for more than 25% of all deaths worldwide.
- Addressing diet and malnutrition will reduce healthcare costs, decrease the disease burden and promote development.
- All of the above
- Malnutrition is manifested in both undernutrition and overnutrition.
- Malnutrition is present only in developing countries.
- Low birth weight can contribute to developing obesity and noncommunicable diseases later in life.
Q3. According to Ms. Lina Mahy, which of the following statements are correct concerning the linkage between the food systems, nutrition and climate change?
- Despite the fact that 30 thousand plant species are edible, just 9 plants provide more than 75% of the food consumed worldwide.
- The 3 main global food staples are rice, maize and quinoa.
- More than half of all the calories consumed worldwide come from rice.
- Biodiversity is key for ensuring food security and healthy diets.
- Current food systems encourage greater biodiversity, contributing to higher-quality diets.
- Poor biodiversity is one of the factors contributing to the double burden of malnutrition.
Q4. According to Dr. Christopher Golden, which of the following statements are correct concerning the importance of global fisheries?
- Fish can be easily substituted with other nutritious foods in the diet.
- Due to the effects of climate change, the fish will become more concentrated in the areas closer to the equator.
- Promotion of aquaculture is the best solution to the upcoming fisheries crisis.
- The global fisheries catch has been declining by 1 million metric tons per year since 1996.
- The declining global fish catch will have different effects on different population groups, including nutrient deficiencies in some countries and Westernization of diets in others
Q5. According to Dr. Jake Rice, which of the following statements are correct concerning the sustainable management of ecosystems?
- Developing countries are generally more interested in their economic development than biodiversity conservation.
- Developed countries are responsible for the current ecological problems in the developing countries, and should fund the environmental conservation programs in the Global South.
- Management of threats is undertaken by countries at various degrees, depending on available capacity and commitment.
- Vulnerability of biodiversity depends also on the capacity of countries to manage the threats.
- The most endangered ecosystems are in the Arctic.
Q6. According to Dr. Jake Rice, what are the factors that link coastal degradation and human health?
(There may be multiple correct/applicable responses, and all need to be selected)
- Emerging infectious diseases
- Contaminated food and water
- Degradation of traditional cultural use of areas for food and recreation
- Groundwater intrusions
According to Dr. Daniela Moura, which of the following statements are correct concerning the importance of biodiversity for healthy diets?
- Some edible plant species are underutilized in developing countries because of the possible negative side effects of their consumption.
- Even though some food species have higher nutritional value in terms of vitamins and minerals, they remain underutilized.
- The National Biodiversity Strategy Action Plans (NBSAPs) recognize the lack of awareness about the importance of biodiversity for food and nutrition as one of the causes of biodiversity loss.
- Healthier diets should be promoted through awareness-raising campaigns, such as disseminating recipe books, nutrition guidelines, and training.
- Food and nutrition policies should be included in the environmental conservation strategies.
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