Global Health at the Human-Animal-Ecosystem Interface Quiz Answers

Global Health at the Human-Animal-Ecosystem Interface Quiz Answers

Get All Global Health at the Human-Animal-Ecosystem Interface Quiz Answers

Q1. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the importance of One Health in Global Health?

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1. Epidemiological investigations based on the One Health approach analyze comprehensively the cycle of transmission of infection to identify the so-called weak spot of the system

2. The One Health approach is key to addressing Global Health challenges at the human-animal-ecosystem interface such as emerging zoonotic diseases

3.One Health brings vets and zoologists more prominently to the Global Health arena

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Q2. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the areas of common interest and collaboration of the so-called Tripartite Alliance?

View 1. The three priority areas of collaboration of the Tripartite Alliance are: Rabies,
Avian Influenza and Ebola

2. The fight against antimicrobial resistance has become a priority for the Tripartite
Alliance

Q3. In the context of a zoonotic threat, which of the following statements is/are correct concerning joint cross-sectoral health risk assessments?

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1. Joint cross-sectoral health risk assessments can help to identify gaps in necessary information

2 . Governmental support and openness for collaboration between Ministries is key for joint cross-sectoral health risk assessments at the national level

3. Defining risk questions is a key step in the risk assessment and these questions should be as broad as possible to cover any unexpected circumstances during the health crisis

Q4. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the links between human health and the health of our planet?

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1. Biodiversity conservation advocacy can be reinforced by the need to protect human health

2. Planetary health refers to the interdependence between human health and health of the natural systems on which it depends

Q5. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning global trade of food animals and its regulation?

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1. Global trade of food animals is regulated by the OIE (International Organisation of Animal Health)

2. The sanitary risks of the global trade of food animals come from the transportation of living animals, not from animal products

3. In the context of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement, WTO (World Trade Organisation) member states can integrate global recommendations in the national regulatory frameworks

Quiz 01: Graded quiz on “Emerging Infectious Diseases”

Q1. Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove from Institut Pasteur describes her research experiences in live-poultry markets in Southeast Asia. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning epidemiological investigations in the context of zoonotic outbreaks?

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1. Serological tests are performed on humans in close contact with animals to search for antibodies that could indicate their exposure to the infection
2.The One Health approach is central to epidemiological investigations of zoonotic outbreaks, where humans, animals, and the environment should be screened for the presence of the emerging pathogen

Q2. According to the discussion with Dr Marc Jouan, which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the organisation and mission of Institut Pasteur and its global network?

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1. After the Ebola epidemic in 2014-2015, a new Institute Pasteur has joined the network in Liberia
2.The One Health approach is part of the working principles of the Institute Pasteur
3.One of the common goals of all institutes within the network is to build local capacity to perform cutting-edge research in infectious diseases and to apply it to public health interventions

Q3. IHR 3.0 Simulator (or Simulator RSI 3.0 in French) is being developed by a consortium of European public Universities and in consultation with the World Health Organisation. Which of the following statements is/are also correct concerning the IHR 3.0 Simulator?

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1.IHR 3.0 Simulator is focused on public health crises of an infectious nature
2.The IHR 3.0 Simulator is a role-playing game that involves WHO and national governments directly or indirectly affected during a public health emergency of international concern
3.IHR 3.0 Simulator is a “serious game” where the player’s goal is to prevent the spill-over of infections from animals to humans

Q4. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the disease ecology of the Nipah virus in Cambodia and the way researchers study bat populations in the field?

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1. Bats of the genus Pteropus are frugivorous and roost in trees in Cambodia
2.Oral and rectal swabs from bats allow direct detection of the virus, while blood samples are used to perform serological analysis, which informs about previous exposure to the infection
3.The reproductive activity of bats is highly synchronic and the annual peak in the prevalence of the Nipah virus matches with the arrival of new young and naïve individuals to the population

Q5. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the human-bats interface in Cambodia and the study of Nipah virus spill-over?

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1. The foraging behavior of bats can inform about opportunities for virus spill-over
2.Rabies and Nipah virus disease are well recognised by local communities in Cambodia
3.In epidemiological investigations, anthropologists study the way local communities perceive bats and how they interact with them in their daily lives

Q6. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and the need for collaborative approaches for their study and control?

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1.Entomologists study the ecology of mosquitoes providing key information for public health interventions targeting mosquito population control
2.In the fight against VBDs, transdisciplinary approaches are more complete than interdisciplinary ones because they involve both different disciplines and sectors

Q7. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the importance of understanding animal behaviour in the context of Global Health?

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1.Migratory stopovers can bring opportunities for spillover of pathogens from wild to domestic birds
2.Some parasites can induce behavioural changes in their insect hosts
3.Behavioural ecologists can help epidemiologists and public health experts to understand the whole biological cycle of a parasite

Q8. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the contributions of social anthropology to the fight against emerging infections?

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1.Lay knowledge complements empirical evidence for a broader understanding of socio-ecological systems and the spread of infections
2.The integration of lay knowledge in epidemiological investigations can be viewed as part of the cross-sectoral approach in One Health
3.Social and medical anthropologists help to integrate local knowledge of human-animal socio-ecology to help epidemiologists in the identification of the source of the emergence

Q9. According to Dr. Geoffroy Mauvais, which of the following statements are correct concerning the link between conservation and health?

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1. Conservation may seem disconnected from health because of differences in expertise and the absence of common space, but can actually support health strategies.
2.Solutions for human-wildlife conflict management lie in abatement of their consequences.

Q10. According to Dr. Geoffroy Mauvais, which of the following statements are correct concerning the reversed spillover of disease?

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1.The Ebola epidemic is an example of a reversed spill-over.
2.There are examples of diseases transmitted to wildlife by cattle brought from another continent.
3.Strict control is crucial to prevent further dissemination of the disease, especially during transportation of animals.

Quiz 01: Graded quiz on “Antimicrobial Resistance & Zoonotic Foodborne Infectious Diseases”

Q1. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the burden of Antimicrobial Resistance and its threat for Global Health?

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1. Antimicrobial resistance makes infections more difficulty to treat, which involves additional economic costs for health systems at the global scale
2.The global burden of Antimicrobial Resistance may be underestimated because of the lack of information for certain countries of the world

Q2. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the WHO Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance?

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1.The One Health approach is recognised in the WHO Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance
2.The WHO Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance will be adapted nationally and each country will develop its specific plan by 2017

Q3. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the integrated surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance as illustrated by CIPARS in Canada?

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1.Because human salmonellosis is a reportable disease in Canada, there is no issues in getting isolate from all people actually suffering of salmonellosis
2.Based on the Salmonella Heidelberg-ceftiofur story, it can take less than one year for a large change in antimicrobial use in young chicken to impact the antimicrobial resistance in human Salmonella

Q4. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the global burden of AMR and its clinical implications?

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1.Second and third line antibiotics are expensive and usually not available in developing countries
2.Antimicrobial resistance brings an additional complication to the fight against nosocomial infections around the world
3.Nosocomial infections are caused by pan-resistant bacteria, which are untreatable

Q5. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant Salmonella Kentucky ?

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1. Poultry is the principal reservoir of multi-drug resistant Salmonella Kentucky but other animals such as pigs can be secondary vehicles
2.Resistant Salmonella Kentucky emerged from the animal sector

Q6. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the integrated surveillance of human enteric diseases as illustrated by FoodNet Canada ?

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1.The epidemiology of zoonotic enteric diseases is complicated and their surveillance requires the surveillance of each reservoir and route of transmission
2.Using a standardized sampling frame similar across all sentinel sites and over years is an asset for surveillance

Quiz 01: Graded quiz on “Zoonotic Neglected Infectious Diseases”

Q1. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the so-called WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)?

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1.Most NTDs can be jointly prevented through actions that promote healthier environments
2.NTDs include a group 18 zoonotic diseases and therefore the One Health approach is very relevant to tackling them

Q2. According to experiences in rabies control in Kuazulu-Natal in South Africa, which of the following factors is/are important for success?

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1. Use the One Health thinking and evaluate all levels of your system
2.Inform the community and involve it through education and training

Q3. According to Dr. H. Bourhy (Institut Pasteur), what are some of the major research priorities for improving the control of Rabies?

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1.Improve epidemiological surveillance to collect better data on the burden of rabies
2.Improve our understanding of the pathobiology of rabies and the drivers of virus spill-over
3.Improve awareness among the population to promote mass dog vaccination

Q4. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the prevention of rabies in human in the context of Nunavik (Canada) ?

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1. The uncontrolled reproduction of dogs in Nunavik is one of the key obstacles in reducing the risk to human health related to dogs in Nunavik
2.The use of dogs by Inuit has changed in Nunavik, Quebec
3.The One Health and the EcoHealth approaches are required together

Q5. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning Tunisian public health interventions in the fight against cutaneous leishmaniasis?

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1.Reducing the prevalence and incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans is possible through actions on the habitat of the reservoir
2.Epidemiological surveillance and treatment of infected patients are key in the national public health strategy to control cutaneous leishmaniasis
3.Ecological systems are resilient and therefore sustainability of public health interventions can be key for the elimination of leishmaniosis

Q6. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the impact of Zoonotic TB?

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The tools for differential diagnosis of zoonotic TB and TB are limited and infections by M bovis can be confounded with M tuberculosis

Quiz 01: Graded quiz on “Conflict and Injuries”

Q1. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the management of protected areas and the human-wildlife conflicts around them?

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1.The management of protected areas aims at conserving biodiversity and maintaining live-support ecosystem services
2.Elephants can be responsible for human food insecurity in certain regions of Africa
3.Human populations and their domestic animals cannot be excluded in the management of protected areas and their wildlife

Q2. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the global burden of snakebite?

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The recognition of snakebite as a global health issue is dramatically low if we compare it with its relatively high global burden

Q3. Sub-Saharan Africa and other poor areas of the world are facing the so called snakebite crisis. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning snakebite and the associated crisis?

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1.Snakebite is part of the list of so-called Neglected Tropical Diseases
2.“Doctors Without Borders” works to tackle the absence of or inaccessibility to polyvalent snake antivenom in Sub-Saharan Africa
3.Snakebite is responsible for thousands of deaths every year in Sub-Saharan Africa
4.Data from hospitals provide an underestimation of the real incidence of snakebite at the community level

Q4. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning the burden of snakebite in livestock in Costa Rica?

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If not treated, fer-de-lance envenomation can cause death of cattle in some of hours

Quiz 02: Graded quiz on “Innovation and Opportunities”

Q1. Which of the following statements is/are correct concerning Digital Epidemiology and Traditional Epidemiology ?

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1. Digital epidemiology and traditional epidemiology coincide in their goals but differ in their methods of collecting and analysing data
2.Digital epidemiology can make epidemiology more relevant for Global Health

Q2. According to the discussion with Prof Grey (UNIGE), which of the following statements is/are correct concerning Citizen Science and Crowdsourcing ?

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1. Crowdsourcing can be applied to objectives that are not scientific
2.The field of health has traditionally attracted a lot of citizen participation, but thanks to the web this is being extended to new scientific fields such as ornithology
3.Crowdsourcing relies on web technologies, smartphones, etc., and is a relatively young concept
4.Citizen science refers to the non-professional participation of amateurs in scientific projects
5.The biggest challenge of citizen science and crowdsourcing is to attract public participation and sustain it over time

Quiz 01: Graded Quiz on “Health Benefits at the Human-Animal-Ecosystem Interface”

Q1. According to Dr. Estelle Fourat, which of the following statements are correct concerning the nutrition transition and the example of India?

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1. Changes in diet are closely associated with changes in social norms and values regarding specific food products.
2.Nutrition transition implies the replacement of plant proteins with animal proteins and occurs along with economic development.

Q2. According to Dr. Martin Schlaepfer, which of the following statements are correct concerning the link between ecosystem services and health?

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1.Access to nature is crucial for the psychological well-being of urban and suburban citizens.
2.Health systems impact environmental services, and vice versa.
3.Ecosystem services are ecological functions and goods that contribute to human well-being.
4.Health, terrestrial, and aquatic ecosystems are directly and obviously interlinked within the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals.

Q3. According to Dr. Dennis Turner, which of the following are the benefits of owning a companion animal for human health?

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1. Lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease
2.Reduced feelings of anger and aggression
3.Increased endurance and fitness level
4.Improved quality of life
5.Higher survival rates of heart attack patients

Q4. Which of the following statements are correct concerning the “Hygiene hypothesis” introduced by Dr. Caroline Roduit?

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1.Growing on a farm or with pets can potentially protect against developing allergic diseases in adulthood.
2.Children from large families are less vulnerable to certain types of diseases, such as atopic dermatitis.

Q5. According to Dr. Jean Simos, which of the following statements are correct concerning Environmental health?

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1.The understanding of the linkage between environment and health was present since ancient times.
2.Environmental hazards account for around 25% of the global burden of disease.
3.The hygienist movement introduced major changes to urban planning.
4.The burden of diseases due to environmental issues is larger in developed countries.

Quiz 01: Graded Quiz on “Management of Ecosystems under Global Changes”

Q1. According to Ms. Villalobos Prats, what should be done to protect health from global environmental change in a gender-responsive manner?

(There may be multiple correct/applicable responses, and all need to be selected)

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1. Include gender agenda in environmental health programs
2.Collect sex-disaggregated data
3.Understand different gender-specific health risks
4.Promote gender-specific health impact assessments
5.Include gender analysis in the assessment of environmental vulnerability
6.Encourage women`s leadership in biodiversity conservation programs
7.Promote participation of women in agriculture

Q2. According to Dr. Francesco Branca, which of the following statements are correct concerning the linkage between health and nutrition?

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1. Maternal and child malnutrition accounts for more than 25% of all deaths worldwide.
2.Addressing diet and malnutrition will reduce healthcare costs, decrease the disease burden and promote development.
3.Malnutrition is manifested in both undernutrition and overnutrition.
4.Low birth weight can contribute to developing obesity and noncommunicable diseases later in life.

Q3. According to Ms. Lina Mahy, which of the following statements are correct concerning the linkage between the food systems, nutrition and climate change?

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1.Despite the fact that 30 thousand plant species are edible, just 9 plants provide more than 75% of the food consumed worldwide.
2.Biodiversity is key for ensuring food security and healthy diets.

Q4. According to Dr. Christopher Golden, which of the following statements are correct concerning the importance of global fisheries?

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1.The global fisheries catch has been declining by 1 million metric tons per year since 1996.
2.The declining global fish catch will have different effects on different population groups, including nutrient deficiencies in some countries and Westernization of diets in others

Q5. According to Dr. Jake Rice, which of the following statements are correct concerning the sustainable management of ecosystems?

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1.Management of threats is undertaken by countries at various degrees, depending on available capacity and commitment.
2.Vulnerability of biodiversity depends also on the capacity of countries to manage the threats.

Q6. According to Dr. Jake Rice, what are the factors that link coastal degradation and human health?

(There may be multiple correct/applicable responses, and all need to be selected)

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1.Bioaccumulation
2.Emerging infectious diseases
3.Contaminated food and water
4.Degradation of traditional cultural use of areas for food and recreation
5.Groundwater intrusions

According to Dr. Daniela Moura, which of the following statements are correct concerning the importance of biodiversity for healthy diets?

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1.The National Biodiversity Strategy Action Plans (NBSAPs) recognize the lack of awareness about the importance of biodiversity for food and nutrition as one of the causes of biodiversity loss.
2.Food and nutrition policies should be included in the environmental conservation strategies.

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