Understanding Medical Research: Your Facebook Friend is Wrong Quiz Answers

Get All Weeks Understanding Medical Research: Your Facebook Friend is Wrong

How can you tell if the bold headlines seen on social media are truly touting the next big thing or if the article isn’t worth the paper it’s printed on?

Understanding Medical Studies, will provide you with the tools and skills you need to critically interpret medical studies, and determine for yourself the difference between good and bad science.

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Understanding Medical Research: Your Facebook Friend is Wrong Week 2 Quiz Answers

Quiz 1: The Basics

Q1. What is the exposure and outcome in this study?

  • Exposure: Cancer, Outcome: Organic Food Consumption
  • Exposure: NutriNet-Sante, Outcome: Cancer
  • Exposure: Organic Food Consumption, Outcome: Cancer
  • Exposure: NutriNet-Sante, Outcome: Organic Food Consumption

Q2. This study examined organic food consumption at baseline. In general, what type of variable is organic food consumption?

  • Non-varying
  • Varying
  • Edible
  • French

Q3. In this paper, the authors state that “Because of their lower exposure to pesticide residues, it can be hypothesized that high organic food consumers may have a lower risk of developing cancer” [In Introduction]. The conclusion of this paper states that “higher organic food consumption is associated with a reduction in the risk of overall cancer.”

Which of the following accurately describes this study?

  • This is a positive study, but does not undoubtedly mean that organic food consumption lowers the risk of cancer.
  • This is a negative study and organic food consumption does not lower the risk of cancer.
  • This is a positive study and organic food consumption lowers the risk of cancer.
  • This is a negative study, but does not undoubtedly mean that organic food consumption does not lower the risk of cancer.

Q4. In the results section, the authors state that one of the confounders that was adjusted for in this study is family history of cancer.

Which of the following is true of this variable (family history of cancer)?

  • It may lie on the causal pathway between organic food consumption and risk of cancer.
  • Family history of cancer is only associated with organic food consumption.
  • Family history of cancer is only associated with risk of developing cancer.
  • It may be independently associated with both, organic food consumption and risk of cancer.

Q5. You are skeptical of the claim that organic food consumption is associated with a lower risk of cancer and want to dig further. What are some steps you can take?

Check all that may apply.

  • Ask your sister who is a cancer epidemiologist.
  • Ensure that the journal’s impact factor is a high number.
  • Ensure that the journal’s impact factor is a low number.
  • Write to the authors asking them to verify the results.

Understanding Medical Research: Your Facebook Friend is Wrong Week 3 Quiz Answers

Quiz 1: Medical Statistics Made Ridiculously Simple

Q1. The researchers state that the objective of this study was to “test the effect of the order of beer and wine consumption on the next day’s hangover severity.”

What is the null hypothesis for this study?

  • The order of beer and wine consumption has no effect on the next day’s hangover severity.
  • Alcohol consumption is harmful for health.
  • Beer has an effect on the next day’s hangover severity.
  • The order of beer and wine consumption has an effect on the next day’s hangover severity.

Q2. Table 1 in the paper states the baseline demographics of the study population. In the “Study Group 1” column, the following is written in the “Age, years” row: 23.9 ± 5.8.

What do these numbers signify?

  • Standard deviation  ± Mean
  • Mean  ± Standard Deviation
  • Median  ± Average
  • Mode  ± Standard Deviation

Q3. The study results state that “There was no significant difference in blood or urine test results between the 3 groups, either before or on the day following the intervention (P > 0.05).”

Which of the following is true about the significance of this outcome based on this statement?

  • It is clinically significant but its statistical significance cannot be determined.
  • It is not statistically significant because the final result had a p-value greater than p= 0.05 and it is not clinically significant either.
  • It is not clinically significant but it is statistically significant since the final result obtained had a p-value greater than p = 0.05.
  • It is clinically and statistically significant.

Q4. The authors state that a t-test was used to evaluate the primary hypothesis of the study. Which of the following is true of the study data?

Check all that may apply.

  • It can be assumed that the data is normally distributed.
  • It can be assumed that the data is bell-shaped in distribution.
  • It can be assumed that the data is linear in distribution.
  • An assumption cannot be made without further information.

Q5. Some of the study variables accounted for in this study are gender, body weight, height, and BMI. Which of these variables can be categorized as continuous?

Check all that may apply.

  • Body weight
  • Gender
  • Height
  • BMI

Q6 The study states that “more women than men vomited on both study days.” Which of the following statements is true for this study?

  • This study represents all women and men and it is safe to assume that every woman will vomit after drinking alcohol.
  • This study probably doesn’t represent all women and men. It is important to assess the inclusion criteria and study limitations.
  • The researchers are confident that 95% of the women will vomit after drinking alcohol. 
  • The study represents all the women from a particular location.

Understanding Medical Research: Your Facebook Friend is Wrong Week 4 Quiz Answers

Quiz 1: Types of Medical Studies

Q1. The following is the title of the study:

Association of Coffee Drinking With Mortality by Genetic Variation in Caffeine Metabolism Findings From the UK Biobank 

What is the outcome of interest?

  • Coffee Drinking
  • UK Biobank
  • Genetic Variation
  • Mortality

Q2. The authors state that “We used baseline demographic, lifestyle, and genetic data from the UK Biobank cohort, with follow-up beginning in 2006 and ending in 2016, to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for coffee intake and mortality, using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models.”

What is the type of study design used here?

  • Case-Control
  • Prospective Cohort 
  • Retrospective Cohort
  • Cross-sectional

Q3. Which of the following is true of this study?

Check all that may apply.

  • The authors studied the development of an outcome over time in different levels of exposure.
  • The authors recruited people based on the outcome of interest and studied the exposures that lead to those outcomes.
  • This study design is better than a randomized controlled trial.
  • The authors randomized people to consume different amounts of coffee in the study. 

Q4. Let’s assume that the study researchers now want to analyze the effect of caffeinated coffee intake on a person’s wakefulness. They decide to randomize people into two groups — the study group will drink instant coffee and the control group will drink a placebo drink. What can be a good placebo drink option here?

  • A different type of coffee (ground or espresso) 
  • Decaffeinated coffee
  • Tea
  • Water

Q5. Let’s assume that you are now assigned as the Caffeine Expert at the International Alliance on All Things Coffee (IAATC). The IAATC asks  you to collect the highest-quality evidence to showcase the health effects of coffee.

  • What is the best strategy to put together the highest form of evidence to support this stance?
  • Present this paper as the best evidence to support the health benefits of coffee.
  • Prepare a meta-analysis using various papers that study the health effects of coffee.
  • Conduct a new study that studies the health effects of coffee.
  • Create a powerpoint showcasing stories of people who drink a lot of coffee.

Understanding Medical Research: Your Facebook Friend is Wrong Week 5 Quiz Answers

Quiz 1: How Wrong Conclusions Are Reached

Q1. The researchers of this paper state that  “Exposure to violent video games increase children’s dangerous behavior around firearms.” Which of the Bradford Hill criteria does this paper satisfy in terms of support for a causal link between exposure to violent video games and children’s dangerous behavior around firearms?

Check all that may apply.

  • Biologic Gradient
  • Analogy
  • Temporality
  • Consistency

Q2. The researchers state that one of the variables they controlled for in the study was “interest in firearms.” Which of the following criteria does this variable have to meet in order to be a confounder for this study?

Check all that may apply.

  • It should only be associated with exposure to violent video games
  • It should not lie on the causal pathway between exposure to violent video games and  children’s dangerous behavior around firearms
  • It should only be associated with children’s dangerous behavior around firearms
  • It should independently be associated with both, exposure to violent video games and children’s dangerous behavior around firearms

Q3. Let’s assume that in this study, a child’s dangerous behavior around firearms is used as a perfect surrogate end-point for increased likelihood of the child committing murder. Which of the following has to be true in order for this to be true? Check all that may apply.

  • A child’s dangerous behavior around firearms must cause increased likelihood of committing murder
  • Increased likelihood of committing murder must not be caused by anything else
  • If the number of times a child exhibits dangerous behavior around firearms changes, their likelihood of committing murder changes
  • A child’s dangerous behavior around firearms must be independently associated with their likelihood of committing murder

Q4. Another variable the researchers controlled for was trait aggressiveness. Which of the following would have to be true in order for trait aggressiveness to be a mediator?

Check all that may apply.

  • It would have to lie on the causal pathway between exposure to violent video games and  children’s dangerous behavior around firearms
  • Its effect could be nullified by statistical techniques
  • It should be independently associated with exposure to violent video games and  children’s dangerous behavior around firearms
  • If its a confounder, it has to be a mediator too

Understanding Medical Research: Your Facebook Friend is Wrong Week 6 Quiz Answers

Quiz 1: Bias

Q1. The researchers used face-to-face interviews to collect information on factors such as depression and loneliness. What kind of bias is likely to be present in this study due to this study method?

Check all that may apply.

  • Selection bias because empty-nesters are more likely to participate in this study.
  • Social Desirability bias because participants may not accurately report their feelings of loneliness and/or depression.
  • There is no bias present in the study.
  • Information bias because there is a misrepresentation of information collected on the exposure in this study.

Q2. The authors state that one of the limitations of their study is that “the sample in this study consists of older adults (60 or above) living in one county in Hunan, China”. Which of the following is true for this study?

Check all that may apply.

  • This means that age will be a confounding factor in this study
  • The results of this study can be important even though they are not generalizable 
  • This limitation is a form of selection bias which cannot be adjusted for once it occurs
  • This limitation can be adjusted for during the analysis phase of the study to be nationally representative

Q3. Let’s assume that the authors of  this study mention that their study results are biased away from the null. What does this exactly mean?

  • They believe that the true association between the study variables is lesser than that shown in the study.
  • They believe that the association between the study variables is falsified in the study.
  • They believe that there is no association between the study variables.
  • They believe that the true association between the study variables is greater than that shown in the study.

Understanding Medical Research: Your Facebook Friend is Wrong Week 7 Quiz Answers

Quiz 1:Fixing the Problems with Medical Studies

Q1. The authors state that the objective of this study was to  “To determine the associations of dietary cholesterol or egg consumption with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality” What are the independent and dependent variables in this case?

  • Independent: dietary cholesterol or egg consumption, Dependent: incident CVD and all-cause mortality
  • Independent: incident CVD and all-cause mortality, Dependent: dietary cholesterol or egg consumption
  • Independent: incident CVD, Dependent: all-cause mortality
  • Independent: dietary cholesterol, Dependent: egg consumption and incident CVD

Q2. What are some potential confounders of the relationship between consumption of eggs/dietary cholesterol and incident cardiovascular disease?

Check all that may apply.

  • Low physical activity
  • The cost of eggs
  • Unhealthy dietary patterns
  • Consumption of red meat 

Q3. The study population included men and women of varying ages, smoking status, alcohol consumption habits, and ethnicities. Let’s assume that the authors want to perform matching in this study. Which of the following best describes the way to do this?

  • Only identical twins will be included in this study.
  • Each person in the study group will be “paired” with a person in the comparison group and should have certain matching characteristics such as gender, age, smoking status, alcohol consumption habits, and ethnicity.
  • People will be randomly selected based on their age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and ethnicity.
  • Only those people of a particular age and gender should be included in this study.

Q4. In the previous , let’s say that people were matched on their age, smoking status, and gender. Which of the following variables can be eliminated as potential confounders in the study?

Check all that may apply.

  • Age
  • Meat-eating habits
  • Smoking Status
  • Gender

Q5. Let’s assume that the authors of this study claim that they are the first ones to establish that eating eggs increases incident CVD. Which of the following would best describe the results of this study? Check all that may apply.

  • These results can be used as the sole basis to promote anti-egg campaigns.
  • These results are definitive only if coming from a reputable source and published in a reputable journal.
  • These results may not be reflective of the true association between consumption of eggs and incident CVD since they may be subject to different kinds of biases.
  • These results cannot be deemed to be definitive since this is a single study. This association can only be considered to be true if also shown in several other studies.
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