The Modern World, Part Two: Global History since 1910 Quiz Answers

All Weeks The Modern World, Part Two: Global History since 1910 Quiz Answers

This is a survey of modern history from a global perspective. Part Two begins early in the twentieth century, as older ways of doing things and habits of thought give way. What follows is an era of cataclysmic struggles over what ideas and institutions will take their place.

The course concludes in the present day, as communities everywhere are transitioning into a new era of world history. Again we work hard to grasp what is happening and ask: Why? Again we are drawn to pivotal choices made at key moments by individuals and communities.

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The Modern World, Part Two: Global History since 1910 Quiz Answers

Week 01 : Eight Quiz

Q1. Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire were the core members of which alliance in early 1914?

  • Holy Alliance
  • Central Powers
  • Entente Powers
  • Tripartite Pact
  • Axis Powers

Q2. France, Russia, and Great Britain were the core members of which alliance by late 1914?

  • Tripartite Pact
  • Axis Powers
  • Central Powers
  • Holy Alliance
  • Entente Powers

Q3. According to the presentation, while the outbreak of World War I came as a shock to many people at the time, businessmen were not surprised, as analyses of the bond markets prior to the outbreak of war indicate a general trend toward higher interest rates and other hedges against looming instability.

  • True
  • False

Q4. According to the presentation, one of the major reasons the outbreak of World War I came as a shock to so many was due to the fact that the relative peace in Europe since 1815 had been profitable, and it seemed increasingly inconceivable that actions would be taken to jeopardize economic growth.

  • True
  • False

Q5. According to the presentation, which European power, more than any other, held the strategic initiative to risk general war in 1914?

  • France
  • Great Britain
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Germany
  • Russia

Q6. According to the presentation, which of the following was true of the German Kaiser on the eve of World War I?

  • The Kaiser was a figurehead for the real chief executive, the popularly elected Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg.
  • The Kaiser was a popularly elected leader.
  • The Kaiser tended to represent the bellicose public against the nobility, which preferred continued peace.
  • The Kaiser represented a class of aristocrats, many of them landed nobles, who were increasingly at odds with the prevailing politics of the empire.
  • The Kaiser was the head of a unitary German government and fully controlled the imperial budget.

Q7. In December 1912, Germany secretly affirmed war plans that called for a decisive invasion of which country in the event of general war breaking out over the Balkans?

  • Russia
  • Bulgaria
  • Great Britain
  • France
  • Serbia

Q8. According to the presentation, which of the following best describes Kaiser Wilhelm’s attitude at the end of 1912?

  • Increasingly fatalistic about an impending war with Russia and France
  • Fearful of the increasing power of Austria-Hungary
  • Hopeful that British diplomatic intervention would avert the danger of war in the Balkans
  • Desperate to avoid the outbreak of war in Europe
  • Determined to maintain the current balance of power in Europe

Q9. According to the passage by Helmuth von Moltke: “_____________ will not be vanquished in this war, it is the only nation which can at present take over the leadership of mankind toward higher goals…”

  • Germany
  • Britain
  • The Slav peoples
  • The Latin peoples
  • Russia

Q10. In the passage, Helmuth von Moltke criticizes the British as being which of the following?

  • Spiritual barbarians
  • Past the zenith of their development
  • Backward
  • Materialistic
  • All of the above

Q11. According to the presentation, the European governments had difficulty mobilizing their populations for war in 1914 because vast portions of the citizenry were ambivalent about going to war over a narrow conflict in the Balkans and saw no higher ideals at issue.

  • False
  • True

Q12. The British decided to enter the war on the side of France and Russia after the German invasion of which country?

  • France
  • Serbia
  • The Netherlands
  • Russia
  • Belgium

Q13. Near the end of 1914, which of the following countries entered the war on the side of the Entente Powers?

  • The Ottoman Empire
  • Bulgaria
  • Japan
  • The United States
  • China

Q14. Near the end of 1914, which of the following countries entered the war on the side of the Central Powers?

  • Bulgaria
  • The United States
  • China
  • The Ottoman Empire
  • Japan

Q15. The Serbian government, at least some of which had hoped that the assassination of Franz Ferdinand might spark a conflict that would weaken Austria-Hungary, had succeeded in occupying large swaths of Austro-Hungarian territory by the end of 1915.

  • False
  • True

Q16. According to the presentation, American President Woodrow Wilson held which of the following positions in 1916?

  • He sympathized with the war aims of the Entente Powers, but he thought the United States should remain neutral in order to protect trade relations.
  • He had no sympathy for the war aims of any of the belligerents, and he wanted to keep the United States out of the war while searching for diplomatic means of bringing the war to an end.
  • He sympathized with the war aims of the Central Powers, but he thought the United States should remain neutral in order to protect trade relations.
  • He desperately wanted the United States to enter the war on the side of the Entente, but he was blocked by public opposition and an isolationist Congress.
  • He was actively looking for ways to expand America’s colonial domains while the European powers were preoccupied with war.

Q17. According to the presentation, what kind of leverage did Woodrow Wilson have over the European powers in 1916? Choose all that apply.

  • Despite American neutrality, the American military buildup of 1915 made the United States the strongest military in the world. Wilson hoped to leverage this military superiority to get the belligerents to the negotiating table.
  • Wilson’s neutrality was viewed as genuine, and this gave him standing as a potential broker of a settlement.
  • American loans to Great Britain were substantial, and the threat of halting these loans was a source of considerable leverage.
  • American sea trade with Germany was substantial, and the threat of halting this trade was a source of considerable leverage.
  • Even though the American army was small, the threat of an American entry into the war was still something the Germans wanted to avoid.

Q18. According the presentation, what is the reason the United States missed its opportunity to launch a peace move in the late summer/early fall of 1916, at a time when Germany and Britain might have been open to such a move?

  • Wilson was waiting to make a peace move until after the American military buildup was complete, so that he would have greater leverage.
  • German unrestricted U-boat warfare had shifted American public opinion away from peaceful neutrality and in favor of entering the war on the side of the Entente.
  • Wilson suffered a debilitating stroke in August 1916 and was not well enough to launch a peace move.
  • The United States was preoccupied with dealing with a domestic financial panic.
  • Wilson waited to make a peace move until after the presidential election of November 1916, at which point it was too late.

Q19. Which country’s government collapsed in early 1917 under the strain of the war effort?

  • Germany
  • Russia
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Great Britain
  • The Ottoman Empire

Q20. According to the presentation, which of the following contributed to the American decision to enter the war in 1917? Choose all that apply.

  • Woodrow Wilson realized that the United States had a better chance at expanding its overseas empire if it became a belligerent in the war.
  • German unrestricted submarine warfare threatened American trade and could not be tolerated.
  • Great Britain threatened to cut off its lucrative sea trade with the United States.
  • Woodrow Wilson believed that the best way to have a hand in shaping the peace and influencing the shape of the postwar world was by bringing the United States into the war.
  • Public outrage developed over the German attempt to convince Mexico to declare war on the United State.

Week 02 : Nine Quiz

Q1. According to the presentation, which of the following were best prepared to facilitate the rise of “total states” during World War I?

  • Liberals
  • National conservatives
  • Revolutionary socialists
  • National traditionalists
  • Democratic socialists

Q2. According to the presentation, the entry of the United States into the war in the spring of 1917 effectively made an Allied victory inevitable by early 1918.

  • False
  • True

Q3. According to the presentation, German grand strategy was predominantly in the hands of which man in early 1918?

  • General Erich von Ludendorff
  • Chancellor Georg von Hertling
  • Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II
  • General Paul von Hindenburg

Q4. According to the presentation, which of the following was a factor in the tipping of the balance in favor of the Allied Powers by the summer of 1918? Choose all that apply.

  • Allied political leadership proved to be more resilient and adaptive than that of the Central Powers.
  • The Allies were able to leverage considerably more material resources due to their control of the seas and the failure of the German U-boat offensives.
  • By the summer of 1918, American forces had moved into significant combat action in Europe.
  • The Allies made a number of scientific advances, in areas such as poison gas and airpower, that bolstered their war effort and allowed them to begin to overtake the German forces.
  • Germany undermined its stable tactical position through a series of ruinous offensives in the spring of 1918 that left the German forces spent, both physically and emotionally.

Q5. Which of the following empires came to an end between 1910 and 1920? Choose all that apply.

  • The Ottoman Empire
  • The German Empire
  • The British Empire
  • The Qing Empire
  • The French Empire

Q6. In the aftermath of World War I, Woodrow Wilson succeeded in convincing the victorious powers to concentrate on acknowledging the self-determination of nations and building lasting international institutions, instead of on balance of power politics and score settling against the losers.

  • False
  • True

Q7. In 1921-22, the signatories to the “Washington system” treaties decided which of the following in regard to China?

  • The nine powers agreed to respect the territorial integrity of China, including a Japanese withdrawal from parts of mainland China.
  • All of China was carved up between the nine powers, with France and Great Britain controlling the most resource rich Chinese territory.
  • Manchuria was made a formal Japanese mandate, while the remainder of China was left under the rule of the Chinese.
  • The Chinese navy was pegged at a ratio of 5:5:3 with those of Great Britain and the United States.
  • Central China remained under Chinese rule, but the entire Chinese coastline was carved up between the nine powers.

Q8. Which of the following best describes the situation in the Russian Empire at the start of 1917?

  • The tsar and nobles were aligned, while the parliament was so powerless that few outlets for opposition existed short of revolutionary action.
  • The tsar was the figurehead of the country, with the real political power residing in the Russian parliament, which was dominated by democratic socialists.
  • The tsar and nobles were aligned, but an equally strong parliament dominated by democratic socialists served as a check on the power of the ruling elite.
  • The tsar ruled in conjunction with a relatively strong parliament, which consisted of a coalition of liberals and democratic socialists.
  • The tsar was merely a figurehead, with the real power residing with the landed nobles who comprised the parliament.

Q9. According to the presentation, the provisional government implemented in Russia after the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II was dominated by which of the following?

  • Bolsheviks
  • Liberals
  • National conservatives
  • Tsarists
  • Democratic socialists

Q10. According to the presentation, one of the major differences between democratic socialists and Bolsheviks in Russia in 1917 was the fact that the democratic socialists wanted to redistribute private property to poor peasants, while the Bolsheviks wanted to abolish private property and put land under centralized state control.

  • False
  • True

Q11. According to the presentation, while anti-communist movements developed in the years after World War I, anti-communism would not become a powerful political force for another 30 years, in the aftermath of a second catastrophic war.

  • True
  • False

Q12. According to the presentation, fascism is a combination of which of the following ideologies? Choose all that apply

  • National tradition
  • Revolutionary socialism
  • National conservatism
  • Democratic socialism
  • Liberalism

Q13. According to the presentation, faith in _____________ suffered a serious blow in the aftermath of World War I. Choose all that apply

  • Progress
  • Missionary zeal
  • Rationality
  • The State
  • Nationalism

Q14. According to Benito Mussolini, fascism is which of the following? Choose all that apply

  • Individualistic
  • Anti-Liberal
  • Reactionary
  • Action-oriented
  • Totalitarian

Q15. According to the presentation, most women’s rights activists in the late 1800s and early 1900s were agitating less about equal political rights for women and more for the overthrow of women’s traditional social roles.

  • True
  • False

Q16. According to the presentation, modern feminism, with its emphasis on emancipation and broader social roles for women, had its early roots in which period?

  • The early years of the 20th century
  • The 1930s and 1940s
  • Post-World War II
  • The 1910s and early 1920s
  • The late 19th century

Q17. In the presentation, cities such as Shanghai, Tokyo, and Saigon are referred to as “transmission belts.” Which of the following best defines this term, as used in the presentation?

  • These cities were hubs for the importation of Western fashions, conveniences, and cosmetics, with unique fusions of Eastern and Western styles and growing numbers of “modern women.”
  • These cities were hubs for the importation of Western ideas about equal political rights for women, which were then imitated in local laws.
  • These cities were implicated in the transmission of a deadly strain of influenza in 1918 that grew into a worldwide pandemic that killed tens of millions.
  • In these cities, Westerners were exposed to Eastern styles, which they then transplanted back home, resulting in new Asian influences in the popular styles of Western cities.

Q18. According to the presentation, the unsatisfactory conclusion of World War I and the unequal terms of the postwar treaty settlements made it inevitable that renewed European war would erupt again within one or two decades.

  • True
  • False

Q19. According to the presentation, which of the following was a component of the global financial framework of the 1920s? Choose all that apply.

  • A renewed international commitment to the gold standard.
  • Primary reliance on loans from British firms to rebuild the global financial system.
  • American seizure of German territory and industry as payment on defaulted war reparations.
  • Primary reliance on loans from American firms to rebuild the global financial system.
  • The implementation of a floating exchange rate system as a replacement for the pre-war gold standard.Q20.

Q20. Atatürk, the leader of Turkey in the 1920s and 1930s, is best described by which of the following?

  • He was devoted to the revival of Ottoman rule in Anatolia.
  • He hoped to model Turkey on the example of the Soviet Union, creating a communist foothold in Southwest Asia.
  • He was aggressively secular and nationalist, attempting to modernize Turkey through a series of Western-style reforms.
  • He was a devout Muslim and sought to fashion Turkey into a modern Islamic state.

Week 03 : Ten Quiz

Q1. According to the presentation, which country was NOT a participant in the gold standard system in 1929? Choose all that apply.

  • The United States
  • China
  • Great Britain
  • Germany

Q2. The “hydraulic system” of war debt repayment in the 1920s and 1930s that is referenced in the presentation was based primarily on flows of funds from which of the following?

  • The League of Nations
  • Private British firms
  • The U.S. government
  • Private American firms
  • The British government

Q3. According to the presentation, which of the following contributed to the worldwide Great Depression in the 1930s? Choose all that apply

  • Political rivalries kept the European countries from working together to handle the impact of reduced funds from the United States on the financial situation in Europe.
  • Massive printing of paper money in the United States and Europe to combat the growing crisis in early 1930 devalued currencies and led to high interest rates that further reduced demand.
  • The stock market crash of 1929 in the United States reduced the amount of private American credit available to European borrowers.
  • The exit of the United States from the gold standard in 1929 destabilized the world economy even further after the stock market crash.
  • The individual and governmental decisions to liquidate assets and hold onto cash in the face of economic downturn led to further reductions in demand.

Q4. According to the presentation, Great Britain and France undertook new imperial initiatives in the early 1930s to gain access to new markets that would shield them against the effects of the developing global economic crisis.

  • True
  • False

Q5. In 1931, Japan invaded and took control of which territory?

  • Indonesia
  • The Philippine Islands
  • Manchuria
  • The Yangtze valley
  • Midway Island

Q6. According to the presentation, which group dominated Japanese politics by 1933?

  • Monarchists
  • Communists
  • Socialists
  • Liberal internationalists
  • Militant national conservatives

Q7. According to the presentation, which of the following was true of the Nazi share of the vote in the November 1932 German federal election compared with the Nazi share in the July 1932 federal election?

  • The Nazi share of the vote increased dramatically in November 1932, forcing the Republic to give them the right to govern.
  • The Nazi share decreased slightly in the November 1932 election, but despite this the Nazis were given the opportunity to govern.
  • The Nazi share of the vote plummeted in November 1932, forcing the Nazis to prepare a forcible seizure of power.
  • The Nazis were not allowed to participate in the German federal elections in 1932 because the Republic had banned the party after its behavior in the 1930 election.
  • The Nazi share increased slightly in the November 1932 election, making it possible for the Nazis to get a chance at governing.

Q8. According to the presentation, what was the state of global free trade in 1932

  • Great Britain was the only country of the world still committed to free trade principles.
  • The United States was the only country of the world still committed to free trade principles, taking over the historic role of Great Britain.
  • Most countries of the world, including Great Britain, had abandoned free trade in the face of the growing economic collapse.
  • Europe remained committed to free trade, while the United States abandoned free trade to focus on domestic recovery.
  • Most industrialized countries maintained a commitment to free trade as a way of combating the growing global economic crisis.

Q9. According to the presentation, the London Economic Conference of 1933, the last real major attempt at international economic cooperation during the Great Depression, was torpedoed by which country?

  • Germany
  • Japan
  • Great Britain
  • The United States
  • Italy

Q10. According to the presentation, between 1919 and 1939, the trend in Central and Eastern Europe was toward what kind of political regime?

  • Liberal democracies
  • Right-wing dictatorships
  • Dynastic monarchies
  • Socialist democracies
  • Communist dictatorships

Q11. According to Erich Fromm, many people in the 1930s were trying “to feel security again by the elimination of this burden: ________________.”

  • communism
  • the State
  • the self
  • religion
  • the gold standard

Q12. According to the presentation, social democracy is a fusion of which of the following? Choose all that apply.

  • Democratic socialism
  • Liberalism
  • Communism
  • Fascism
  • National conservatism

Q13. According to the presentation, the major prototype of a social democratic approach to national government during the 1930s was which country?

  • France
  • Japan
  • Germany
  • The United States
  • Spain

Q14. According the presentation, which two political families were most influential in the 1930s? Choose two.

  • Democratic socialism
  • Liberalism
  • Fascism
  • Communism
  • National conservatism

Q15. According to the presentation, by 1937 Joseph Stalin had undertaken which of the following to strengthen the USSR? Choose all that apply.

  • He reached out to build an alliance with Nazi Germany.
  • He entered into a security treaty with France and Great Britain, as a hedge against the growing power of Nazi Germany.
  • He entered into a war with Japan for control of Manchuria.
  • He began systematic internal purges of Soviet officials to consolidate his power and prepare for future external wars.
  • He forced collectivization of Soviet farmers as a means of providing food to the industrializing cities.

Q16. According to the presentation, which of the following best describes Adolf Hitler’s thinking in 1937?

  • Hitler was focused on ensuring unity and adequate living space for the “Germanic peoples,” and he believed that imperial expansion to the east was the primary way to achieve this.
  • Hitler was focused on ensuring unity and adequate living space for the “Germanic peoples,” and he believed that imperial expansion to the west was the primary way to achieve this.
  • Hitler was primarily focused on planning for an inevitable reckoning with the “decadent, materialist” Americans.
  • Hitler was hoping to build a network of alliances that would ensure German security without territorial conflict or war.
  • Hitler was preparing for a long-planned invasion of the Soviet Union in early 1938.

Q17. Which of the following was part of the Munich Agreement of September 1938? Choose all that apply.

  • Germany was allowed to annex Poland.
  • Germany was allowed to annex Belgium.
  • Germany promised not to invade the remainder of Czechoslovakia outside of the Sudetenland.
  • Germany was allowed to annex the entirety of Czechoslovakia.
  • Germany was allowed to annex the Sudetenland portion of Czechoslovakia.

Q18. Which of the following best describes the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of 1939?

  • It was an agreement between the Soviet Union, France, and Great Britain pledging to protect the territorial integrity of Poland.
  • It was a non-aggression pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, which included a provision for the division of Poland between the Nazis and Soviets.
  • It was a non-aggression pact between Poland and Nazi Germany.
  • It was the agreement by which Nazi Germany annexed the remainder of Czechoslovakia.
  • It was the treaty that allowed Germany to annex Poland.

Q19. According to the presentation, Great Britain and France declared war on Nazi Germany September 1939 over which issue?

  • The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
  • The territorial integrity of Poland
  • The remilitarization of the Rhineland
  • The territorial integrity of Czechoslovakia
  • The territorial integrity of Belgium

Q20. According to the presentation, by the end of the summer of 1940, the democracies had lost the ability to take the strategic initiative while the dictatorships seemed to be on the verge of carving up the world.

  • True
  • False

Week 04: Eleven Quiz

Q1. According to the presentation, during what period did the regional wars in Europe and Asia coalesce into a truly global war?

  • 1941-1942
  • 1938-1939
  • 1939-1940
  • 1940-1941
  • 1937-1938

Q2. According to the presentation, which of the following was true of Hitler’s thinking by the end of 1940? Choose all that apply.

  • By late 1940, Hitler had decided to shift his focus to planning an invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941.
  • After wearing down the British defenses during the Battle of Britain, Hitler shifted his primary focus to Operation Sea Lion, the planned invasion of Great Britain across the English Channel in early 1941.
  • After being defeated in the Battle of Britain, Hitler reached out to Stalin in the hopes of forming a stronger military alliance to defeat the British and carve up all of Europe between them.
  • After being defeated in the Battle of Britain, Hitler largely abandoned his plans to invade Great Britain across the English Channel.
  • After being defeated in the Battle of Britain, Hitler realized that Great Britain was being propped up by American military aid. He then shifted his primary focus to making plans for war with the United States in early 1941, before the Americans had a chance to fully mobilize.

Q3. According to the presentation, which of the following was true about the United States in 1940-1941? Choose all that apply.

  • By late 1940, American public opinion was overwhelmingly in favor of American entry into the war on the side of the Allies, but Congress was overwhelmingly isolationist and refused to vote a declaration of war.
  • Franklin Roosevelt won election to an unprecedented third term in 1940 mainly on the strength of his promise to bring the United States fully into the war on the Allied side.
  • Because of the Roosevelt administration’s strict interpretation of the Neutrality Acts, virtually no American military aid could be provided to any of the belligerents in 1940-1941.
  • In secret war planning in 1940-1941, the U.S. military planners decided on a Japan First strategy should the United States be drawn into war.
  • None of the above

Q4. According to the presentation, which of the following was a consequence of Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 by Germany and its allies? Choose all that apply.

  • The two most powerful countries in the world did not leverage their combined resources to a common cause of securing control of Europe and other regions.
  • The seeming likelihood of a German victory emboldened the Japanese to take more aggressive steps in Asia and the Pacific.
  • The invasion diverted German resources, manpower, and focus away from the Western Front, allowing the exiled French government to launch a bold, but eventually failed, campaign to retake France from the Nazis.
  • The invasion diverted German resources, manpower, and focus away from the Western Front, thus effectively removing the threat of a German invasion of Great Britain.
  • In response to the German-led invasion, the United States began taking more aggressive steps against Japanese expansion in order to deter Japan from attacking the Soviet Union.

Q5. According to the presentation, why were the United States and Japan unable to come to a “modus vivendi” in 1941? Choose all that apply.

  • The Japanese were optimistic about prospects of a German victory against the Soviet Union.
  • The United States would not assent to continued Japanese expansion in China.
  • The Japanese felt the need, especially in light of American sanctions, for imperial expansion in resource-rich countries of Southeast Asia.
  • Germany promised Japan backing in a war with the United States, thus strengthening the Japanese position and resolve.
  • The Japanese invasion of the Soviet Union in early 1941 threatened the Allied war effort, in which the United States had a major stake.

Q6. According to the presentation, why was the United States not forced into a Japan First strategy after the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941? Choose all that apply.

  • Germany, honoring its promise to Japan, declared war on the United States shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor, thus giving the United States cause to implement its Germany First war plans even though it had been attacked by Japan.
  • In the spring of 1942, Germany prepared to invade Great Britain, which compelled the United States to enter the war against Germany.
  • Soon after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Soviet troops launched an assault on Manchuria, thus freeing the Americans forces to focus on the European theater.
  • Chinese forces won victories against the Japanese in early 1942, allowing the United States to focus on Europe.
  • Despite the Japanese attacks on Pearl Harbor and later on Midway, Hawaii remained under American control along with the strategic oil reserves and other support facilities there, allowing the United States to maintain adequate combat operations in the western Pacific.

Q7. According to the presentation, which of the following was the MOST important strategic objective for the Japanese in the spring/summer of 1942, after going to war against the United States?

  • The Japanese most needed to knock the British out of India so that they could gain access to the wealth of Indian raw materials for their war effort.
  • The Japanese most needed to aid the Germans against the Soviet Union by launching an invasion of the USSR from Manchuria, thus forcing the Soviets to fight a two-front war.
  • The Japanese most needed to invade and occupy Australia in order to neutralize any threat of a British/Australian counterattack from there.
  • The Japanese most needed to invade and occupy Hawaii, to deprive the United States of its most critical forward base and force the Americans to conduct a war across the Pacific from California.
  • The Japanese most needed to conquer all of China in order to consolidate their gains there.

Q8. According to the presentation, why was the Battle of Midway in June 1942 so important?

  • The inconclusive result of the Battle of Midway led the Soviet Union to launch an attack on Manchuria in order to divert Japanese resources and allow the Americans to continue with a Germany First strategy.
  • After the American victory at Midway, the demoralized Japanese were forced to abandon most of their newly occupied territory in Southeast Asia and withdrew to a defense of the home islands of Japan.
  • The decisive Japanese victory threatened Hawaii and forced the Americans to shift to a Japan First strategy for conducting the war.
  • The decisive American victory allowed the United States to continue with a Germany First strategy for conducting the war.

Q9. According to the presentation, while the continental United States remained effectively untouched by fighting during World War II, the particular problem faced by the Americans was how to supply and man the numerous fronts on which they were fighting, in both the Pacific and Atlantic, while still maintaining a domestic workforce capable of producing armaments for the war effort along with foodstuffs and other consumer goods for both domestic and Allied populations.

  • True
  • False

Q10. According to the presentation, which of the following was a gamble made by the United States in its strategy to balance its commitments during World War II?

  • The Americans gambled on a Germany First strategy in prosecuting the war.
  • The Americans gambled that a relatively small army would be adequate.
  • The Americans gambled on airpower as a means of prosecuting and winning the war.
  • The Americans gambled that they could successfully build an atomic bomb.
  • All of the above

Q11. Which of the following best depicts what happened to Germany after the defeat of the Nazis in 1945?

  • Similar to World War I, Germany was allowed to stay intact, but with major industrial and military areas placed under Allied occupation indefinitely.
  • The whole of Germany was occupied by the British, French, and Americans in order to keep the industrial capacity of Germany from falling into the hands of the USSR, which the Western allies had begun to distrust by 1945.
  • Germany was partitioned among the Allied Powers for military occupation, with the USSR occupying large territories in eastern Germany and the British, French, and Americans occupying large territories in western Germany. Berlin, the capital of Germany, was partitioned along similar lines.
  • Germany was placed under the administrative authority of the new United Nations.
  • The whole of Germany was occupied by the Soviet Union as retribution for the catastrophic Soviet losses during the battles on the Eastern Front.

Q12. According to the presentation, immediately after the end of World War II in 1945, leaders in both the United States and Soviet Union were eager to dispense with the wartime alliance as it was becoming increasingly clear that these two countries had far too many differences to work together.

  • True
  • False

Q13. According to the presentation, which of the following was among Stalin’s priority strategies for securing the USSR in the aftermath of World War II? Choose all that apply.

  • Disabling Germany and Japan
  • Preventing a renewed Great Depression
  • International cooperation through new institutions
  • Maintaining the wartime alliance
  • Territorial expansion

Q14. According to the presentation, what were the two dominant political families of the postwar world? Choose two.

  • Fascism
  • Liberalism
  • Communism
  • Democratic socialism
  • Social democracy

Q15. According to the presentation, what were the two weakest political families in the postwar world? Choose two

  • Social democracy
  • Fascism
  • Communism
  • National conservatism
  • Liberalism

Q16. According to the presentation, countercyclical macroeconomic theory is most associated with which of the following individuals?

  • Friedrich Hayek
  • Adam Smith
  • Milton Friedman
  • John Maynard Keynes
  • Karl Marx

Q17. According to the presentation, which of the following was an element of the “Bretton Woods” system of postwar economic organization? Choose all that apply.

  • A return to the traditional gold standard of the 1920s
  • A floating exchange rate system in which currency convertibility was determined by currency markets rather than by fixed ratios
  • Restrictions on the free movement of money across borders
  • A return to free trade principles and the reduction of trade walls
  • A “gold-dollar” standard in which limited supplies of gold were linked to quantities of U.S. dollars with other exchange rates then based on dollars instead of directly on gold

Q18. According to the presentation, which of the following was true of the Marshall Plan? Choose all that apply.

  • The mechanism of Marshall Plan aid was cash transfers from the American government directly to the European countries, which could then use the money to buy goods from wherever they wanted.
  • The European nations had to manage political rivalries, not just economic ones, in order to reach the level of cooperation demanded by the Marshall Plan.
  • As a condition of Marshall Plan aid, the United States required participating European countries to reduce trade barriers within Europe and develop a more interdependent European market.
  • The mechanism of Marshall Plan aid was that European countries put together a list of needed items, which the American government would then buy from American firms and ship to the participating countries.
  • Since the different European nations had different tariff regimes and rivalries between them, it was necessary for the United States to tailor its aid approach to each country individually.

Q19. According to the presentation, while there is room for debate about the objective economic impact of Marshall Plan aid on the European recovery after World War II, the psychological boost provided by the Marshall Plan and its positive effect on political and economic confidence was quite significant.

  • False
  • True

Q20. According to the presentation, which of the following best describes the role played by the United States during the Chinese Civil War in the late 1940s?

  • The United States sent thousands of ground troops to advise the Nationalists, but this only delayed the Communist victory.
  • The United States nominally supported the Nationalist government but had major doubts about Chiang Kai-Shek’s government. After a failed attempt to broker a peace between the two sides, the United States chose not to intervene with American troops during the civil war.
  • The United States viewed Chiang Kai-Shek’s Nationalist government as corrupt and ineffectual and instead sent advisors and materials to the Chinese Communist forces, which were mistakenly viewed as reformers rather than revolutionaries.
  • Agents of the new CIA covertly infiltrated the Chinese Communist forces and attempted to assassinate Mao Zedong and disrupt the Communist momentum, but they were unsuccessful.
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