Speaking to inform: Discussing complex ideas with clear explanations and dynamic slides Quiz Answers

All Weeks Speaking to inform: Discussing complex ideas with clear explanations and dynamic slides Quiz Answers

In the professional realm, most speeches and presentations we give are informative in scope. A scientist needs to explain her recent research findings. A financial officer needs to report on quarterly earnings to his company’s board. A technology professional needs to educate a consumer about a new product. Any time you need to convey ideas or demonstrate a process, you’re dealing with informative speaking.

Informative speaking is a fun puzzle. You need to think from the perspective of your audience to identify what they need to hear in order to understand the key ideas. How much does the audience already know? What are the most important elements to convey? How should one convey these ideas with appropriate breadth and depth given the time constraints of the speech? This demands a strategic approach to speech design that we’ll undertake in this class. By the end of the course, you should be able to explain complex ideas vividly and accessibly, design clear and compelling presentation slides, convey your passion for a topic while maintaining your professional credibility, and speak dynamically from notes and/or a manuscript. Learners will record speeches, providing and receiving peer feedback.

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Speaking to inform: Discussing complex ideas with clear explanations and dynamic slides Quiz Answers

Week 01

Practice Quiz : Valuable talks

Q1. What are some questions you should ask at the start of your speech planning?

  • What’s your value?
  • Will I use slides?
  • What do they know?
  • Who is the audience?
  • Should I start with a joke?
  • What’s the context for your talk?
  • What will I wear?
  • How will I start the speech?

Q2. You should approach speech composition as a linear process. Research the talk, write it, practice it, and then deliver it for an audience.

  • False
  • True

Practice Quiz : Speech goals

Q1. Look at these flawed speech goals.

In my informative speech on the neighborhoods of Seattle, I want to:

  • explain how these neighborhoods formed.
  • mention some of the distinct characteristics of each neighborhood.
  • discuss the history of Seattle’s logging history and its impact on neighborhood development.

The biggest problem with these goals, as discussed in class, is that they DON’T address ________ outcomes.

  • audience
  • complex
  • speaker
  • topic

Q2. Junko is a librarian. She needs to work up a 5-minute talk to give at retirement homes about some of the new services the library offers. She’s done this talk a couple of times in the past and never felt like the presentation went great. Since many at this particular retirement home can’t drive to the local branch, she wants to play up the online material. Users have actually really liked the library’s web portal for lots of community services. Historically, this audience hasn’t been enthusiastic about the online material, though almost all of them are library card holders. However, Junko has trained some at this retirement home to effectively navigate the webpage and they’ve loved it and become regular users. Junko wants to really equip this audience to do more with the library’s webpage.

Which three choices below would be good primary speech objectives for Junko?

  • Be excited about the library’s online services
  • Distinguish between online reserves (which are free to library card holders) and free online reading materials (which are free to anyone with or without a library card).
  • Be able to check a book out online
  • Be able to navigate the “community activities” page
  • Explain why rotating collections (few books spread out over many small libraries) is a better system than large stable collections (many books housed in a single location).
  • List the differences between the online search feature and the old card catalogue system.

Main: Quiz

Q1. Your practice versions of a speech should probably be ___________ than the time allowed for the speech itself.

  • Shorter
  • Longer

Q2. Jorge has created a new system for classifying clients for his marketing firm. Rather than the old system of “first come, first served,” his new system includes a number of metrics for matching the client to the right department and consultant. This is just a short series of questions and categories to quickly get the client to the right place. It’s innovative, but pretty straightforward.

The system has worked well and now the rest of the office needs to implement it. The rest of the office has heard about his system and is excited about it, given the well-known problems of the old system. Yet, most don’t know exactly how the new system works. Jorge has 10 minutes to talk about the system at the next all-office meeting. Given this background, how should he spend his time?

  • Train people on using the new classification system.
  • Talk about the need for the new classification system.
  • Discuss the impacts of the new classification system.

Q3. What were the three main types of speech goals we discussed?

  • Ability
  • Likeability
  • Skill
  • Belief
  • Content
  • Ethos
  • Attitude
  • Interest

Q4. Based on our discussion of writing speech goals, which of the following goals are best?

  • In my presentation on the history of distance learning, I want audience members to:
  1. Understand the how mail order classes affected American higher education
  2. Examine their own beliefs about distance learning
  3. Talk through the benefits and limitations of MOOC learning
  • In my presentation on the history of distance learning, I want audience members to:
  1. Explain how mail order classes impacted the American textbook industry
  2. List the ways in which evening classes altered the mission of public universities
  3. Distinguish MOOC providers according to their mission
  • In my presentation on the history of distance learning, I want audience members to:
  1. Describe the ways distance learning influenced American higher education
  2. Feel like they know how to sign-up for an online course
  3. Sense the changing nature of education

Q5. Look at these flawed, speech goals.

In my informative speech on the neighborhoods of Seattle, I want to:

  • explain how these neighborhoods formed.
  • mention some of the distinct characteristics of each neighborhood.
  • discuss the history of Seattle’s logging history and its impact on neighborhood development.

The biggest problem with these goals, as discussed in class, is that they DON’T address ________ outcomes.

  • complex
  • audience
  • topic
  • speaker

Week 02

Practice Quiz: Introductions and conclusions

Q1. What do we want to make sure to do in our conclusions?

1 point

  • Review the key ideas.
  • review all the sub-points.
  • End with a clear conclusion.
  • Restate that key issue.
  • Say “thank you.”

Q2. For informative speaking, we typically want to identify the topic clearly and early in the talk.

  • Yes, it provides context.
  • No, it ruins the mystery.

Main: Quiz

Q1. The New York Times reported that fewer than 10% of students who enroll in a MOOC end up completing it.

What type of evidence is this?

  • Statistic
  • Example
  • Testimony
  • Metaphor

Q2. Idris is doing a talk on the recent changes in online learning. In a main point about “Changes to online course providers” he has the subpoint, “MOOCs are being more modular.” In support of this subpoint, he’s pulling from a recent research article. The article and its abstract are below.

Kizilcec, R., & Schneider, E. (2015). Motivation as a Lens to Understand Online Learners: Toward Data-Driven Design with the OLEI Scale. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 22(2), 1-24.

Abstract: Open online learning environments attract an audience with diverse motivations who interact with structured courses in several ways. To systematically describe the motivations of these learners, we developed the Online Learning Enrollment Intentions (OLEI) scale, a 13-item questionnaire derived from open-ended responses to capture learners’ authentic perspectives. Although motivations varied across courses, we found that each motivation predicted key behavioral outcomes for learners (N = 71, 475 across 14 courses). From learners’ motivational and behavioral patterns, we infer a variety of needs that they seek to gratify by engaging with the courses, such as meeting new people and learning English. To meet these needs, we propose multiple design directions, including virtual social spaces outside any particular course, improved support for local groups of learners, and modularization to promote accessibility and organization of course content. Motivations thus provide a lens for understanding online learners and designing online courses to better support their needs.

Which of the following best summarizes this article for the sub-point “MOOCs are being more modular”?

  • MOOCs are being more modular. More modular control results in more learner satisfaction. Rene Kizilcec and Emily Schneider, researchers at Stanford university conducted a study of over 70 thousand learners in 14 different online courses. What did they find? Motivation predicted behavior. “From learners’ motivational and behavioral patterns, we infer a variety of needs that they seek to gratify by engaging with the courses, such as meeting new people and learning English.” They make multiple design recommendations for online courses, including creating more virtual spaces. So, breaking up the places where people can interact inside an online course. People go to the discussion forums, for example, for different reasons, allowing for different types of social interaction in an online course better reflects people’s differing motivations. They also recommended increased online support for groups of learner who join a course together. So, a club or a business might sign up for a course at the same time and progress through the course together. Online courses can support this by allowing group members to identify themselves and speak more easily with other group members in the course. They also called for increased modularization to allow for different types of content organization. So, instead of having one pathway through the material: lesson 1, followed by lesson 2, and so forth. They suggested allowed for multiple pathways. Since users are coming to online classes with multiple motivations, MOOCs need to become more modular.
  • MOOCs are being more modular. That is, they are moving away from a single standard way of organizing the course. Not simply one pathway from beginning to end. Rather, the class is broken up into separate modules that learners can choose to interact with in a different order. It turns out that learners are often pretty good at knowing how to use a class for their needs. Researchers from Stanford looked at over 70 thousand learners in 14 different online courses. What did they find? Motivation predicted behavior. If you joined a course to meet new people, odds are you posted more in the discussion forums. If you wanted to earn a certificate, you completed more videos and assignments. They concluded that online courses should allow for different motivations. Making classes more modular is one way to do this. The researchers recommended, for example, breaking up courses to allow different users to use them differently based on their motivations. So, instead of having one pathway through the material: lesson 1, followed by lesson 2, and so forth. They suggested allowing for multiple pathways. A beginner may be motivated to learn the material in sequential order. An advanced learner might just want the course as a reference guide. Learners should be able to organize the lectures chronologically or topically, based on their needs. Demands for modular control drives MOOCs to become more modular.
  • MOOCs are being more modular. Researchers from Stanford looked at over 70 thousand learners in 14 different online courses. What did they find? Motivation predicted behavior. The study concluded that online courses should allow for different motivations. Make classes more modular. The researchers recommended breaking up courses to allow different users to use them differently based on their motivations. Learners should be able to organize the lectures chronologically or topically, based on their needs. Demands for modular control drives MOOCs to become more modular.

Q3. Alexander is an admissions officer at university on the quarter system and regularly presents to prospective students (and their parents) about the differences between the US quarter and semester systems. While roughly 60% of US schools use the semester system (15 week classes), about 20% use the quarter system (10 week classes). Many of the audiences Alexander addresses are familiar with the semester system; less so with the quarter system.

In his usual talk, he discusses the differences in how many classes students take in the two systems, how the days are structured differently, and how the credits are different.

He has an entire subpoint devoted to explaining how despite all their differences, the amount of time spent on instruction per class is roughly the same. Which of the following discussions is best for clarifying this?

  • Quarters and semesters end up being about the same amount of class time. Which is, to me, surprising. When I first came to this university, I had operated in a semester system for over 10 years. Initially, I couldn’t quite find my rhythm. They were pretty different, but eventually I made the conversion and have loved quarter since. I guess what had been so confusing was the fact that the class time was pretty similar. It varied a bit based on whether or not you met daily, but the class times were pretty close. Federal holidays would seem to throw that off, but it doesn’t. Certainly some quarters might have a couple of federal holidays, so you would not have class on those days. In a semester system though, you end up losing entire weeks to student breaks, like spring break. In a quarter system, the longest holiday that occurs within a quarter is probably Thanksgiving and that’s only two days. So, things like spring break simply become the breaks between the different quarters. So, though the class time might seem a bit different, they are actually pretty similar.
  • Quarters and semesters actually have about the same class meeting times. That might sound surprising. It was to me when I first started in a quarter system. But it comes down to minutes. How many minutes you devote to each class and subject. In a semester system, you spend 75 minutes in a class that meets twice a week or 50 minutes in a class that meets three times a week. Multiplied across the 15 weeks in the semester system, brings you to 2,250 total minutes, or about 37 and a half hours. In a quarter system, you spend 110 minutes in a class that meets twice a week or 50 minutes in a class that meets M-F. Multiplied across the 10 weeks in quarter system, brings you to 2,200 total class minutes, or about 36 and a half hours. The class times is the same in both the semester and quarter system.
  • Despite all those differences, the amount of time spent per class is roughly the same in quarter and semester systems. That is, you spend about the same number of hours learning introduction to statistics, for example, if you’re at Indiana University (semester system) or the University of Washington (quarter system). How can this be? Let’s say you’re at IU. You sign up for your stats course. It meets Tuesdays and Thursday for an hour and 15 minutes—75 minutes—each day. You do that for 15 weeks. You end up with about 37 hours of classroom instruction. Semester system: 37 hours in a class. Now let’s say you’re at UW. You sign up for the same class. It also meets on Tuesdays and Thursdays, but each day it meets for over an hour and half—100 minutes—each day. You do that for 10 weeks and you end up with about 36 hours of classroom instruction. Quarter system: 36 hours in a class. One hour less than you would spend in the same class in a semester system. Both classes cover the same material. One does it in shorter classes for more weeks. One does it for longer classes in fewer weeks. The class times is the same in both the semester and quarter system.

Q4. Anika is giving a 15-minute talk about her research on online learning to a conference audience. The conference deals with a number of education tech issues. So, her audience is generally knowledgeable about online learning, but not experts. She wants her audience to be able to explain her study. More importantly though, she wants audience members to know what recommendations to apply to make their online classes better.

Which of the following outlines should she use?

  • outline 1
  • outline 2
  • outline 3

  • outline 4

Q5. Casey works as the chief financial officer for the Harrison Foundation, a non-profit that funds entrepreneurial opportunities and projects in Canadian low-income rural areas. She needs to give a financial review of the past four-months to the foundation’s board. In that time, they launched a new program; today is the first time anyone will be hearing the data. Casey’s basic outline touches on three key points.

I. An update on the performance of the foundation’s investment portfolio

II. An update on three existing foundation projects

III. The first data on the foundation’s new direct-investment program

Given this scenario, which introduction is best?

  • The Harrison Foundation’s mission statement is to identify exciting entrepreneurial opportunities to help low-income, rural Canadians improve their communities. We have been committed to this for 35 years and show no signs of stopping. I was drawn to Harrison Foundation because of its mission. For five years, I lived up in Iqaluit, which was about as isolated as you can get in the winter. Anyway, today we’ll talk about the financial health of the Harrison Foundation. As the chief financial officer, what our books look like keeps me up at night. We can’t do our work in aiding the health of rural Canada, if we don’t remain financially healthy. I think the best place to look is at how our investment portfolio has been doing the past few years.
  • Let’s get started. As you probably know, our portfolio last year had a strong showing. Which is particularly impressive because we haven’t been able to devote much staff to the issue. I think we got lucky in some regards. Also, since we deal in financial management on the mission side of our organization, many staff members here have some fiduciary background. That, by the way, is uncommon for most non-profits in, say, the arts. They tend to draw staff form that topic area and thus struggle more than we might when it comes to portfolio management. Anyway, let’s take a look at the numbers.
  • I want to thank the board for inviting me here today. From a financial standpoint, we’ve had a great couple of months. As you probably know, there was a fantastic article on the Harrison Foundation in Canadian Living last month. That coverage relates directly to what I want to talk about today. How our funding is directly leading to some interesting, high profile projects in Newfoundland and Labrador. In fact, our main project in Newfoundland also received an additional one million dollars in funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Harrison is having a good year. So, what I’d like to do today is start off by giving you a picture of how our investment portfolio is doing. Then, we’ll talk about three of our longstanding projects. I just want to give you an update on how they’re doing. Then finally, the new stuff. I want to talk about our new direct-investment program that partners directly with entrepreneurs, instead of going through other agencies.

Week 03

Main: Quiz

Q1. When thinking about slides, your first question should probably be:

  • Do I need slides?
  • How many slides should I include?
  • Will my slides mostly drive notetaking or simply be impact slides?
  • How will my presentation deck differ from my distribution deck?

Q2. Janaki is updating her school on enrollment figures. She is using slides to emphasize the consistent enrollment growth over the past few years. When taken as a whole, her school saw a 25% increase over the past three years. Keeping in mind our discussion of simplicity, text, and images, which slide should she use?

  • .

.

(Public domain image, via Pixabay)

  • .

(Public domain image, via Pixabay)

  • .

(Public domain image, via Pixabay)

  • .

(Public domain image, via Pixabay)

  • .

(Public domain image, via Pixabay)

Q3. when using a complex image like this

  • start at the top of the image and work down
  • break it up over multiple slides
  • start at the bottom of the image and work up.

Q4. In an assertion-evidence slide, you___________.

  • Make a textual assertion and support it with visual evidence.
  • Make a visual assertion and support it with visual evidence.
  • Make a textual assertion and support it with textual evidence.
  • Make a visual assertion and support it with textual evidence.

Q5. Jessica is going to do a talk about the environmental impacts of green, environmentally friendly, rooftops versus conventional roofs. Which of the slides below best illustrates the assertion the differences between green and conventional rooftops? You can learn more about this over at http://www.assertion-evidence.com/.

  • .

(Image used with permission, via http://www.assertion-evidence.com/)

  • .

(Image used with permission, via http://www.assertion-evidence.com/)

  • .

(Image used with permission, via http://www.assertion-evidence.com/)

Week 04

Practice Quiz: Interacting with your materials

Q1. Always test the mic before speaking by tapping on the top or blowing into it.

  • False.
  • True

Q2. Always stay behind the podium.

  • False.
  • True.

Main: Quiz

Q1. Ethos can be defined as the performance of the speaker’s:

  • emotion.
  • logic.
  • humor.
  • credibility.

Q2. The main components of ethos are:

  • a good hook, relevance, and orientation.
  • knowledge, excellence, and goodwill.
  • invention, arrangement, and style.
  • logos, pathos, and mythos.

Q3. Jonathan works for the public schools District 20. He needs to explain the idea of attendance zones for his audience. The audience is a general one. Many are parents with schoolchildren. Some have a background with the idea of attendance zones, but many don’t. Which of the following explanations of a concept is best according to our discussion of phronesis?

  • District 20, like other districts, uses attendance zones. These are areas for determine which student goes where. For example, both Rampart and Air Academy high schools can each hold about 1,300 students. So, we need to draw boundaries so that students can go to a nearby school, without overloading one or the other. So, 2,000 at Air Academy, but only 800 at Rampart. These zones change a bit over time as needed. When one area of town has a spike in population. But these zones remain more or less the same across multiple years.
  • District 20 has flexible attendance zones that track closely to anticipated enrollment, which is derived from both our day 10 and day 200 surveys. Now, any changes made to specific sub-zones take a couple of years to fully obtain since there is a need for grandfathering in current students admitted under the previous growth boundary estimates.
  • What are attendance zones? They are the areas that we use to determine which students go to which school. These zones change a bit over time as needed, but remain more or less the same across multiple years.

Q4. Chinwe is speaking at conference. Most of the other speakers have stood at the podium and used the microphone. Chinwe is generally better when she moves away from the podium and interacts with the audience more. The room is fairly small and she knows that her audience could easily hear her. The conference is being recorded and the videos will be made available on the organization’s website. What should Chinwe do?

  • Speak on microphone at the podium.
  • Move away from the podium and interact with the audience.

Q5. Which set of notes below are best formatted for oral delivery?

  • .

.

  • .
  • .
  • .
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