Quantitative Methods Coursera Quiz Answers – Networking Funda

Get All Weeks Quantitative Methods Coursera Quiz Answers

Quiz 1: Origins

Q1. Which example fits best with the concept of systematic observation?

• Asking every fourth person to enter the mall about their favorite sport and recording this.
• Observing everything you do in one day
• Observing every fourth person to enter the mall

Q2. A hypothesis must be:

• observed
• testable
• proven correct

Q3. What is the primary difference between a scientific theory and a scientific law?

• A theory explains why something happens and a law describes a pattern
• A theory describes a pattern and a scientific law explains why something happens
• A theory does not necessarily have a large body of supporting data

Q4. In contrast to Plato, Aristotle asserts that:

• sensory experience is prone to errors
• only knowledge obtained through reasoning can lead to the truth
• the physical world around us does provide knowledge

Q5. All swans that have been observed are white colored swans. Therefore one can conclude that all swans are white.

• This is an argument based on a false premise
• This is a form of inductive reasoning
• This is a form of deductive reasoning

Q6. According to logical positivism, the sentence “God exists” is meaningful only if:

• the sentence has meaning for the person who utters it
• it is believed to be true, even if we don’t know which observations can be used for verification
• it is true by definition or can be verified through observation

Q7. A student wants to do a research project on a mother’s love for her child. How would a radical empiricist react to this idea?

• A mother’s love for her child cannot be subject to scientific analysis unless it can be shown to have a material, physical basis (e.g. brain activity associated with love)
• A mother’s love for her child can only be understood by a fellow mother and therefore this project should not be undertaken by someone who hasn’t yet started a family
• He or she would advise the student to develop a theory of love specific to this phenomena, i.e. the love of a mother for her child

Q8. The position that abstract concepts are merely words and that there is no independently accessible thing constituting the meaning of a word is known as

• nominalism
• idealism
• realism

Q9. Which of these statements is true?

• Positivists and interpretivists agree that science is empirical (studies produce data)
• Constructivism and interpretivism are linked with qualitative data
• both are true

Q10. If you prepared a study on the effects of text-messaging rather than talking on the phone on the quality of friendships, you would be conducting

• fundamental and universalistic research
• applied research
• fundamental and particularistic research

Quiz 1: Informed Consent Form

Q1. The Quantitative Methods course will be provided as three slightly differing versions, with the purpose of researching the effects of different types of learning techniques on subsequent gains in learning. This study is conducted by the University of Amsterdam. We have no control over the version you will receive. The research is non-intrusive and there are no negative effects expected on learning gains. Your data will be anonymised before being used and will strictly be used for scientific purposes. Your data might be shared with third parties, but also solely for scientific purposes. If, for any reason, you do not wish your data to be used, it is possible to indicate so below.

Please note this quiz will not count towards your final grade since this is a practice quiz. Your grade will not suffer in any way if you decide not to give consent!

If at any moment you have questions about this research, you can contact Annemarie Zand Scholten ([email protected]). For possible complaints about this research you can contact the involved member of the Ethics Committee: Wery van den Wildenberg ([email protected]).

If you wish to read more about the study, see the document below:

Do you or do you not agree with your data being used for scientific purposes?

• I agree
• I disagree

Quiz 2: Scientific Method

Q1. If in the testing phase our predictions are confirmed by the data, does this mean we have definitively proven the hypothesis?

• Yes
• No
• It depends

Q2. If the data support our predictions, this leads us to conclude that

• We need to develop new predictions that can be disconfirmed
• The hypothesis is provisionally supported
• Our predictions are confirmed, but we cannot say anything about the hypothesis

Q3. Heavey, Russell and Noelle (2012, p. 763) stated that: “How you feel may influence your facial expression, may be influenced by your facial expression, may be otherwise related to your facial expression, or none of the above, so a scientist’s observation of your facial expression (a third-person act) cannot be substituted for your own direct apprehension of your feelings (a first-person act)”. Here, the authors doubt the

• Construct validity of studies using facial expressions
• External validity of studies using facial expressions
• Internal validity of studies using facial expressions

Q4. By combining data from various publicly available sources Harvard Law School student Tyler Vigen has found out that there’s a correlation between the number of movies Nicolas Cage appears in each year and the number of people who drown in their swimming-pools. The MOST logical conclusion is that

• No causal inference can be made from observational data
• Less people will drown in their swimming pool once Cage retires
• Correlation doesn’t imply causation

Q5. Suppose a researcher hypothesizes a causal relationship between breastfeeding and children’s health at age 4 years exists and investigates this hypothesis by measuring health characteristics of a group of four year olds and by asking their mothers whether the child was breastfed or not. Suppose a relation is indeed found. The most obvious threat to internal validity in this situation is:

• Selection effect
• Maturation effect
• Selection by maturation effect

Q6. Testing effects due to practice/learning from exposure to repeated testing can be eliminated by

• Using tests with high construct validity
• Randomization
• Including groups that are exposed to a pre-test and groups that aren’t

Q7. In a famous study by psychologist John Bargh subjects had to create a sentence from scrambled words. When these words related to being old, participants walked more slowly when they left the laboratory. In a recent replication study, Doyen, Klein, Pichon and Cleeremans (2012) found that participants walked more slowly only when they were tested by experimenters who expected this effect. This seems to point to

• The impact of demand characteristics
• The need to misguide participants
• An experimenter expectancy effect

Q8. A researcher is interested in the effect of the perceived freedom of speech on social cohesion in small communities. She investigates small communities in China – which has a low perceived freedom of speech – and Malaysia – which has a relatively high perceived freedom of speech. The study runs for ten years. The study started two years before China relaxed its policy of restricting couples to have only one child. This policy change represents a

• History threat to internal validity
• Mortality threat to internal validity
• Temporal ambiguity threat to internal validity

Q9. Willingness to take risks is assumed to be an important component of entrepreneurship. We hypothesize that willingness to take risks causes people to start and run a business. Here,

• Willingness to take risks is the outcome variable
• Willingness to take risks is the dependent variable
• Entrepeneurship is the dependent variable

Q10. Suppose an observational study indicates a positive relation between weekly ice cream consumption and murder rates. Which of the following are possible lurking variables?

• Neither of the two options
• Weapon possession and population size
• Season of the year and heat waves

Quiz 1: Research Designs

Q1. The main advantage of randomized controlled trials (RCT) is that

• they provide the best support for causality
• they are rigorous and objective
• treatments can be compared against each other and a control group

Q2. A researcher presents both male and female managers from several companies with application materials (CV and application letter) from a student applying for a job opening. Half the managers were given the application with a male name attached, and half were given the exact same application with a female name attached. Results showed that managers were less likely to offer the female applicant a job (gender bias). This corresponds to

• a main effect of the manager’s gender
• an interaction effect between the applicant’s and the manager’s gender
• a main effect of the applicant’s gender

Q3. Which of the following illustrates the use of a within-subjects design?

• Students of three different age levels are given the same test.
• Students take two comparable tests. They take the first without preparation; before the second test they meditate for ten minutes.
• One group of students is given a compliment before an exam and a second group is criticized before taking the exam.

Q4. An educational psychologist examined whether students will perform best if online education is combined with classroom learning. Students were randomly assigned to three conditions. In this study, these three conditions would be

• online education, classroom learning and highly motivated vs. poorly motivated students
• student grades, experimental condition and course content
• online education, classroom learning and a combination of both

Q5. Those in favor of field experiments argue that this type of research is perhaps less tightly controlled, but that more realism implies greater relevance. They also question the generalizability of laboratory experiments. This critique can be summarized as

• concerns about self-selection of participants into lab experiments
• doubt on the internal validity of laboratory experiments
• doubt on the ecological validity of laboratory experiments

Q6. A researcher notices that highly educated participants are more likely to refuse an unpleasant experimental treatment after being randomly assigned to the treatment condition. Therefore, he is concerned about the comparability of the treatment and control group. In this case, the researcher should BEST

• rerun the study with some form of restricted randomization
• stop worrying because randomization never fails
• do a randomization check

Q7. Which of the following designs allows the researcher to compare the size of the increase or decrease in scores in the experimental and control condition?

• the two-group pre-test/post-test design
• the two-group post-test only randomized experiment
• a simple within subjects design

Q8. If participants are not measured twice (e.g. only a post-test)

• regression to the mean and testing (reactivity) are not issues
• testing (sensitization) is not an issue
• regression to the mean is not an issue

Q9. Cameron, Erkal, Gangadharan, and Meng (2013) studied the causal relationship between growing up without siblings and altruism by comparing a group of participants born just before and just after the introduction of China’s One-Child Policy in 1979. This is an example of

• a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)
• an experimental study
• a ‘natural’ experiment

Q10. A cohort design is a panel study

• where the same individuals respond to a survey at several points in time
• where a group of individuals with a common characteristic are followed up longitudinally
• where the same individuals are interviewed at several points in time

Q11. Mincome was an experimental Canadian basic income project that was held in Dauphin, Manitoba during the 1970s. The project allowed every family in this town to receive a minimum cash benefit, thereby essentially eliminating poverty. Forget (2013) has evaluated the long-term effect of this guaranteed income program on people’s health (hospitalization rates) by comparing residents from Dauphin with a matched comparison group of residents from similar areas. This study can be characterized as

• a summative evaluation study with an experimental design
• a formative evaluation study with a quasi-experimental design
• a summative evaluation study with a quasi-experimental design

Quiz 1: Measurement

Q1. Operationalization refers to

• the specification of an abstract concept into a measurement procedure
• any observation that can take different values
• an attribute, characteristic, or behavior that is in principle measurable

Q2. Measurement is

• the way in which variables are categorized
• the numerical representation of empirical relations
• assigning numbers

Q3. A researcher asks people to name their favorite music genre (rock, rap, etc…). This question measures music genre preference at

• the interval level
• the ordinal level
• the nominal level

Q4. Markowitz and Hancock (2014) compared publications of the social psychologist Diederik Stapel in which proof of fraud was established to articles by the same author which showed no evidence of fraud. One of the things these researchers did was to count the number of words related to emotional actions, states and processes in the two types of publications. Such a word frequency variable is

• a categorical variable
• a continuous ratio variable
• a discrete ratio variable

Q5. I. measures of the same trait using different methods show agreement

II. different traits assessed by the same method do not agree

• I indicates convergent validity, II indicates discriminant validity
• I indicates convergent validity, II indicates criterion validity
• I indicates discriminant validity, II indicates convergent validity

Q6. The degree of agreement between raters when using a particular rating instrument is called

• intra-observer consistency
• rater reliability
• inter-rater reliability

Q7. “38% of the managers would not hire a mother for any role in their organization”. This statement MOST likely implies that a sample of managers has

• filled out a questionnaire on their attitudes towards working mums
• taken a test on their knowledge of employee rights
• filled out a survey including a question if they would recruit a mum for a position in their business

Q8. Likert items should be monotone, meaning that respondents

• are consistently more likely to agree with the item if they possess the property to a greater degree
• cannot have both negative and positive reactions to the item
• cannot be unsure about their response to the item

Q9. Consistently concealing your true opinion by using the midpoint of the scale

• introduces random error and is called acquiescence
• introduces systematic error and is called bias towards the middle
• introduces a generosity error and is called bias towards the middle

Q10. Hair cortisol (a hormone made by the adrenal glands) levels are being used as a chronic stress measure. This illustrate the use of

• trace measures
• physical measures
• observational measures

Quiz 1: Sampling

Q1. In directed imagery tasks participants listen to a particular scenario and are instructed to picture the situation, the people, and the events as clearly and as vividly as they can. A researcher could ask participants how realistic they found such scenarios in order to check

• whether the use of an experimental setting that does not mirror reality precisely was justified
• the external validity of the task
• whether reactivity to the laboratory setting occurred

Q2. Strata are

• all the elements in a population that can be individually identified
• distinct subsets in the population defined by a stratification variable
• all the elements in a sampling frame

Q3. Opinion polls attempt to measure public opinion. Poll results can accurately reflect the attitudes in the population if

• the sample is large enough and based on self-selection
• the poll is based on probability sampling
• the sample is large enough and consists of volunteer respondents

Q4. Systematic sampling may be used instead of simple random sampling if

• the sample size is large
• the list of elements is ordered randomly
• we are unaware of a pattern in the list of elements

Q5. The loss in precision is usually far outweighed by the reduced cost. This applies to

• random sampling
• stratified sampling
• cluster sampling

Q6. A researcher approaches the first visitor entering a mall and asks if he or she is willing to participate in a study on aging and depression. He approaches the next visitor, followed by the next, and so on. This is

• quota sampling
• convenience sampling
• purposive sampling

Q7. As the size of a random sample increases, the amount of sampling error

• remains the same
• decreases
• increases

Q8. Using the same sample frame, a random sample of 500 voters were interviewed by telephone and a second random sample of 500 voters answered the same set of questions by filling out a web survey. A systematic difference in polls results can be due to

• an incomplete or inaccurate sampling frame
• differences in non-sampling error between the two samples
• the amount of sampling error between the two samples

Q9. To decide the optimal sample size, one needs to consider

• the variability in the population
• the variability in the population and the margin of error that one is willing to accept
• the size of the population

Quiz 1: Practice Exam 1 – immediate feedback

Q1. This is a practice exam, to prepare yourself for the final exam. You can take this exam as many times as you like, the score will not count towards your final grade. To pass the exam you need a score of 70% (21 out of 30 questions correct).

In the real exam, please make sure your internet connection is good and don’t forget to save your answers from time to time. You can take the final exam only once every 30 days, so make sure you are well prepared!

This practice final exam consists of 30 multiple-choice questions about the research described below. Each question has three answer options, of which only one is correct or most appropriate. If you feel a correct answer option is not provided, then choose the best fitting option.

Please follow the honor code and do not communicate or confer with others taking this exam.

Flipping the classroom
A lecturer at the University of Amsterdam (UvA) wants to investigate the effectiveness of an instructional method called ‘Flipping the Classroom’ (FtC). FtC means that students prepare for class by watching short video lectures online. Subsequently, in the face-to-face, live lectures the subject matter is treated more in-depth, by using interactive assignments, so students will learn more.

The teacher investigates this method with premaster students and regular bachelor students studying Communication Science, who are taking the course Statistics-II together. Under the guise of extra support, four days before each lecture, the premaster students get access to the video recordings of last year’s lecture. They are asked to study these recordings carefully. In the live lecture (for all students) the lecturer only explains the most difficult material, and leaves a lot of time for questions. After this lecture, the premaster students don’t have any access to the recordings anymore. The regular students get access to the recording of the live lecture they attended during four days after the lecture. At the end of the course, all students take the same exam at the same time.

The effectiveness of the ‘standard’ versus the FtC instructional method will be investigated by comparing exam scores (study performance, score range: 1 – 10, interval variable) of the two groups. During the exam a questionnaire is used to measure self-confidence and study motivation (both interval variables with a score range of 10 – 50) and age, gender and the math score obtained in secondary school (on final exams).

Disclaimer: this research is completely made up!

Question 1:
This research is

• correlational
• experimental
• quasi-experimental

Q2. A manipulation check could consist of checking if

• the lecture videos were indeed studied
• the number of men and women in each group was about the same
• the mean self-confidence scores were about the same in the two groups

Q3. The independent variable is

• study performance
• instructional method
• type of student (premaster/regular)

Q4. The most obvious threat to internal validity is

• maturation
• selection
• instrumentation

Q5. If self-confidence is significantly lower for premaster students, then self-confidence is a

• constant
• confounder
• independent variable

Q6. The dependent variable is

• study performance
• self-confidence
• instructional method

Q7. This research has the following design:

• static group comparison
• randomized pretest posttest design
• pretest posttest non-equivalent control group

Q8. The external validity of this study benefits from the fact that

• all students study Communication Science
• both male and female students participated
• Neither

Q9. The sample is (most likely) a

• quota sample
• purposive sample
• convenience sample

Q10. Suppose the effect of the instructional method and gender on study performance was investigated factorially, then how many main effects can be investigated?

• 1
• 2
• 3

Q11. If a researcher maintains that the not-directly observable trait of study motivation can be useful in scientific claims, then this researcher is not a

• logical-positivist (like Schlick)
• scientific realist (like Galileo)
• empirical constructivist (like Van Fraassen)

Q12. Suppose that FtC does not result in better study performance, but does result in higher study motivation. As a consequence, the researcher changes the research question and hypothesis and presents the study as a study on the effect of FtC on study motivation. This is called

• harking
• p-hacking
• cherry picking

Q13. This study has the following design:

• within
• between
• within and between

Q14. The only threat to internal validity which could not provide an alternative explanation for the expected results in this study is

• dropout
• history
• testing (sensitization)

Q15. A control variable in this study is

• study performance
• study motivation
• instructional method

Q16. The ecological validity in this study is fairly good, because it was performed

• on actual students
• in a natural educational setting
• both

Q17. A randomization-check could consist of checking if

• the video lectures were really studied afterwards
• study performance on the exam was about the same in the two groups
• mean age in the two groups was approximately the same

Q18. Suppose that study performance is mainly determined by reading skill instead of understanding of the course material. This is bad for th

• internal validity
• construct validity
• both

Q19. Instructional method is a

• control variable
• experimental variable
• individual differences variable

Q20. In this study random sampling can only be carried out in practice when the population exists of

• students
• people who follow an education
• UvA-students who are enrolled in 2014-2015

Q21. Considering the benefits (knowledge about the effectiveness of FtC) and disadvantages (possible lowering of study performance of one group of students) falls under the ethical aspect of

• respect
• beneficence
• justice

Q22. If a researcher holds that it is impossible to know or measure how much self-confidence someone really has, then this is an objection of

• an ontological nature
• an epistemological nature
• neither

Q23. a. ‘Studying material beforehand will lead to better study performance’

b. ‘My live lectures seem more useful when students are well prepared’

c. The mean result for Statistics-II will be higher for students who were instructed via FtC, than the mean of students who received regular instruction’

The three statements above consecutively belong the following phases of the empirical cycle:

• deduction – induction – observation
• deduction – observation – induction
• induction – observation – deduction

Q24. If a student responds with ‘totally disagree’ to all items on the study motivation-scale, not considering the content of the items, we call this

• acquiescence
• social desirability bias

Q25. Suppose that the research hypothesis is confirmed by the results. Our confidence in the effectiveness of FtC is strengthened most by

• replication
• peer-review
• meta-analysis

Q26. The researcher wants to know whether students’ motivation is measured validly. The scores on the study motivation scale are compared with the scores on the Amsterdam Study Motivation Scale (ASMS), a widely used tool during enrollment for the study of all students. The correlation between study motivation measured in the present study and the ASMS-score concerns

• predictive validity
• ‘concurrent’ validity
• convergent validity

Q27. Self-confidence is a

• formative variable
• experimental variable
• individual-differences variable

Q28. The measurement level of the variable instructional method is

• interval
• ordinal
• nominal

Q29. Suppose the researcher finds the following descriptive statistics for the variable study motivation:

The most probable error is

• a data-entry error
• a computational error
• misspecification of missing values

Q30. Suppose we find a mean study performance score of 6.28 (84 students, sd = 0.85) in the regular group and a mean of 6.61 in the FtC group (42 students, sd = 1.66). A higher score indicates a better performance. If you consider only the direction of the difference between the groups (don’t worry about the size or significance of the difference) then the results

• cannot be said to agree or disagree with the expectations
• agree with the researcher’s expectations
• disagree with the researcher’s expectations

Quiz 1: Final Exam

Q1. This is the final exam which will contribute significantly to your final grade. Please make sure you have a good internet connection and don’t forget to save your answers from time to time. You can take this exam only once every 30 days, so please make sure you are well prepared!

To pass the exam you need a score of 70% (21 out of 30 questions correct). You can take this exam only once a month, so make sure you are well prepared!

This final exam consists of 30 multiple-choice questions about the research described below. Each question has three answer options, of which only one is correct or most appropriate. If you feel a correct answer option is not provided, then choose the best fitting option.

Please follow the honor code and do not communicate or confer with others taking this exam.

English vs. Dutch
The Communication
Sciences department at the University of Amsterdam is considering offering the
existing Dutch bachelor program in English. Some teachers fear that this will
cause the educational quality of the program to deteriorate. They point to
studies that show that students who study abroad need more time to complete a
program. A researcher who is interested in the relationship between language
skills and academic achievement, decides to use this opportunity to explore the
general hypothesis that education in a foreign language has a negative

The researcher
approaches the lecturers of the first two courses in the first semester,
‘Introduction’ and ‘History’. She persuades the lecturers to deliver the
lectures and seminars (group meetings) twice, once in Dutch and once in
English. At the start of the semester, students choose if they wanted to follow
both courses either in English, or in Dutch. Students are also asked for
permission to use their academic results for research purposes.

To assess the effect
of the language of instruction on academic achievement, the researcher measures
students’ knowledge of the material twice, once with an exam at the start of
the course and once at the end. These are all different, old exams that have
previously shown high psychometric quality.

(average exam grade on the final exam, range 1-10), students are asked to fill
out a separate online survey to indicate their age (in years), gender (male /
female), secondary education final exam score in English (grade, range 1-10)
and overall satisfaction with the courses ‘Introduction’ and ‘History’ (mean
sum score of 4 Likert items, range 4-20).

Disclaimer: This
research is completely fabricated!

Question 1:
The described study is

• correlational
• experimental
• quasi-experimental

Q2. The researcher could have conducted a manipulation-check
by checking if the

• mean final exam grade in English was similar
between groups
• mean performance on the first exam was the same between
groups
• discussions in the English speaking group were really conducted in English

Q3. The independent variable is

• gender
• language of instruction
• final exam score in English

Q4. The described research design is especially useful to assess threats to internal validity by

• maturation
• selection
• neither

Q5. If the reliability of the overall satisfaction questions is very high, then their validity will be

• high
• low
• not necessarily high or low

Q6. The dependent variable in this study is

• age
• overall satisfaction (with the courses)

Q7. The design of this study is called a

• Solomon pretest posttest design
• randomized pretest posttest design
• pretest posttest non-equivalent control group design

Q8. External validity could have been enhanced by using a

• quota sample
• random sample
• convenience sample

Q9. If we don’t take into account the average exam grade at the start of the course, the described research design may be called

• within (subjects)
• between (subjects)
• within-between (subjects)

Q10. The variable most appropriate to be used as a control variable is

• age
• overall satisfaction
• final exam grade in English

Q11. The described research design is, in terms of epistemologic approach, most compatible with

• realism
• empiricism
• neither

Q12. The best randomization check the researcher could have performed would be to check whether

• the average final exam grade in English was similar between groups
• academic achievement was the same between groups at the start of the study
• both

Q13. Suppose the researcher decides to add gender to the described design as an independent variable. The effects that can be analyzed are

• one main effect and one interaction effect
• two main effects and one interaction effect
• two main effects and two interaction effects

Q14. The internal validity of the described research design is threatened most strongly by

• testing
• selection
• instrumentation

Q15. Suppose the research hypothesis is not confirmed, and for that reason the study is not accepted for publication by scientific journals. This is an example of

• publication bias
• falsification error
• replication failure

Q16. Overall satisfaction (with the courses) is

• a constructive variable
• an experimental variable
• an individual difference variable

Q17. The measurement level of the variable ‘language of instruction’ is

• interval
• ordinal
• nominal

Q18. a. “Research shows that students who study abroad need more time to complete their studies”

• b. “Teaching a foreign language will lead to lower academic performance than education in the native language”
• c. “The average final exam grade for the courses ‘Introduction’ and ‘History’ will be lower in the group that was taught in English than in the group was taught in Dutch”
• The previous
three statements a, b and c respectively belong to the following stages of the
empirical cycle
• observation – induction – deduction
• deduction – induction – observation
• deduction – observation – induction

Q19. Suppose the items in the online questionnaire really do give a good indication of student satisfaction with the courses. In that case, we say the questionnaire has high

• construct validity
• predictive validity
• ecological validity

Q20. If students behave differently because they are aware of their participation in a study, we call this

• a Pygmalion effect
• demand characteristics
participant” behavior

Q21. Suppose the Ethics Committee evaluates the described research and decides that the benefits do not outweigh the costs. Which ethical aspect do they regard to be violated?

• respect
• justice
• beneficence

Q22. If a researcher believes that the nature of reality is not independent of our thinking, then this is primarily an objection of

• an epistemological nature
• an ontological nature
• both

Q23. The measurement level of variables like exam grade and final exam grade in English
is highly debated, generally
researchers will accept that these variables approximate the

• ratio level, but strictly speaking are measured at the interval level
• interval level, but strictly speaking are measured at the ordinal level
• ordinal level, but strictly speaking are measured
at the nominal level

Q24. Suppose the researcher finds: a) that there are relatively more women in the English group than in the Dutch group and b) that on average women perform equally well in
the final examinations. In this case, we call gender

• a confounding variable
• a lurking variable
• neither

Q25. One method to evaluate the validity of a measurement instrument like exam grade or the overall course satisfaction items is the

• purposive validation approach
• multi-stage clustering approach
• multi-trait multi-method matrix approach

Q26. Suppose you have determined – through psychometric analysis – that the final exam of the course “Introduction” has high construct validity. On the basis of this information, you can say that the reliability of this exam

• cannot be determined
• is probably low
• is probably high

Q27. The ecological validity of this study is high because the

• instruments measure what they are intended to measure
• research setting resembles a natural educational setting
• sample (almost all first year students Communication
Sciences) is large

Q28. Suppose the researcher had initially planned to use the results of the final exams as well
as the resits (retake exam if the final exam was not passed). However, she notices immediately after the final exams that the results are in line with the expectations. The researcher decides to offer the data for publication immediately and no longer waits for the results of the resits. This is called

• harking
• data snooping
• cherry picking

Q29. A codebook includes a description of

• what the variables and variable values ​​in the data file mean
• the (statistical) operations that are performed on the data
• both

Q30. Suppose that there is no difference between the two groups in the mean grade for the exams at the start of the semester. Now look at the following table that shows the mean grade for the final exams for both groups.

Look only at the direction of the difference between these means (not the size or significance). The direction of the difference is

• not possible to estimate
• in accordance with the expectations
• contrary to the expectations
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