Major 10 Characteristics of databases – Networking Funda

Below Listed Major 10 Characteristics of databases

1. Real World Entity

DBMS these days is very realistic and real-world entities are used to design its architecture. Also, behavior and attributes are used by DBMS. To simplify it we can take an example of an organization database where the employee is an entity and his employee id is an attribute.

2. Self-Describing Nature

Before DBMS, a traditional file management system was used for storing information and data. There was no concept of definition in a traditional file management system like we have in DBMS.

A DBMS should be of Self- Describing nature as it not only contains the database itself but also the metadata. Metadata (data about data) defines and describes not only the extent, type, structure, and format of all data but also the relationship between data. This data represents itself that what actions should be taken on it.

3. Support ACID Properties

Any DBMS is able to support ACID (Accuracy, Completeness, Isolation, and Durability) properties. It is made sure in every DBMS that the real purpose of data should not be lost while performing transactions like deleting, inserting, and updating.

Let us take an example; if an employee’s name is updated then it should make sure that there is no duplicate data and no mismatch of employee information.

4. Concurrent Use of Database

There are many chances that many users will be accessing the data at the same time. They may require altering the database system concurrently. At that time, DBMS supports them to concurrently use database without any problem. With the help of concurrency, economy of the system can be increased.

For Example, employees of the railway reservation system can book and access tickets for passengers concurrently. Every employee can see on his own interface how many seats are available or bogie is fully booked.

5. Insulation Between Data and Program

Program-data independence provides a big relief to database users. In a traditional file management system, the structure of data files was defined in the application programs so the user had to change all the programs that are using that particular data file.

But in DBMS, the structure of data files is not stored in the program but it is stored in the system catalog. With the help of this, internal improvement of data efficiency or any changes in the data do not have any effect on application software.

6. Transactions

Transactions are a bunch of actions that are done to bring the database from one consistent state to a new consistent state. The traditional file-based system did not have this feature. The transaction is always atomic which means it can never be further divided. It can only be completed or uncompleted.

For example, A person wants to credit money from his account to another person’s account. Then the transaction will be complete if he sends money and another guy receives his money. Anything other than this can lead to an inconsistent transaction.

7. Data Persistence

Persistence means if the data is not removed explicitly then all the data will be maintained in DBMS. If any system failure happens then the life span of data stored in the DBMS will be decided by the users directly or indirectly. Any data stored in the DBMS can never be lost. If system failure happens in between any transaction then it will be rolled back or fully completed, but data will never be at risk.

8. Backup and Recovery

There are many chances of failure of the whole database. At that time no one will be able to get the database back and the sure company will be at a big loss. The only solution is to take a backup of the database and whenever it is needed, it can be stored back. A database must have this characteristic to enable more effectiveness.

9. Data Integrity

This is one of the most important characteristics of the database management system. Integrity ensures the quality and reliability of the database system. It protects unauthorized access to the database and makes it more secure. It brings only consistent and accurate data into the database.

10. Multiple Views

Users can have multiple views of the database depending on their department and interest. DBMS support multiple views of the database to the users. For example, a user of the teaching department will have a different view and a user of the hostel department will have a different one. This feature helps users to have somewhat security because users of other departments cannot access their files.

So it was all about the 10 Characteristics of databases Management Systems. If you have any problem with these characteristics then please comment below.


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