Topic: Introduction to Internet of Things (IoT)
Introduction to IoT-The Internet of Things, also called The Internet of Objects, refers to a wireless network between objects. By embedding short-range mobile transceivers into a wide array of additional gadgets and everyday items, enabling new forms of communication between people and things, and between things themselves. The term Internet of Things has come to describe a number of technologies and research disciplines that enable the Internet to reach out into the real world of physical objects. Things have identities and virtual personalities operating in smart spaces using intelligent interfaces to connect and communicate within social, environmental, and user contexts. From any time, any place connectivity for anyone, we will now have connectivity for anything.
IoT is a network of interconnected computing devices which are embedded in everyday objects, enabling them to send and receive data.
Over 9 billion ‘Things’ (physical objects) are currently connected to the Internet, as of now. In the near future, this number is expected to rise to a whopping 20 billion.
Main components used in IoT:
- Low-power embedded systems: Less battery consumption, and high performance are the inverse factors that play a significant role in the design of electronic systems.
- Sensors: Sensors are a major part of any IoT application. It is a physical device that measures and detect a certain physical quantity and convert it into a signal which can be provided as an input to the processing or control unit for analysis purpose.
- Different types of Sensors :
- Temperature Sensors
- Image Sensors
- Gyro Sensors
- Obstacle Sensors
- RF Sensor
- IR Sensor
- MQ-02/05 Gas Sensor
- LDR Sensor
- Ultrasonic Distance Sensor
- Control Units: It is a unit of the small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a microprocessor or processing core, memory, and programmable input/output devices/peripherals. It is responsible for major processing work of IoT devices and all logical operations are carried out here.
- Cloud computing: Data collected through IoT devices is massive and this data has to be stored on a reliable storage server. This is where cloud computing comes into play. The data is processed and learned, giving more room for us to discover where things like electrical faults/errors are within the system.
- Availability of big data: We know that IoT relies heavily on sensors, especially in real-time. As these electronic devices spread throughout every field, their usage is going to trigger a massive flux of big data.
- Networking connection: In order to communicate, internet connectivity is a must where each physical object is represented by an IP address. However, there are only a limited number of addresses available according to the IP naming. Due to the growing number of devices, this naming system will not be feasible anymore. Therefore, researchers are looking for another alternative naming system to represent each physical object.
There are two ways of building IoT:
- Form a separate internetwork including only physical objects.
- Make the Internet ever more expansive, but this requires hard-core technologies such as rigorous cloud computing and rapid big data storage (expensive).
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