Topic: Conceptual Framework for Internet of Things (IoT)
- The main tasks of this framework are to analyze and determine the smart activities of these intelligent devices through maintaining a dynamic interconnection among those devices. The proposed framework will help to standardize IoT infrastructure so that it can receive e-services based on context information leaving the current infrastructure unchanged. The active collaboration of these heterogeneous devices and protocols can lead to future ambient computing where the maximum utilization of cloud computing will be ensured.
- This model is capable of the logical division of physical device placement, creation of virtual links among different domains, networks, and collaboration among multiple applications without any central coordination system. IaaS can afford standard functionalities to accommodate and provides access to cloud infrastructure. The service is generally offered by modern data centers maintained by giant companies and organizations. It is categorized as virtualization of resources which permits a user to install and run applications over the virtualization layer and allows the system to be distributed, configurable and scalable.
- The total infrastructure system can be categorized into 4 layers to receive context-supported e-services out of raw data from the Internet of Things. These 4 layers establish a generic framework that does not alter the current network infrastructure but creates interfacing among services and entities through network virtualization.
1. Connectivity Layer-
This layer includes all the physical devices involved in the framework and the interconnection among them. The future internet largely depends on the unification of these common objects found everywhere near us and these should be distinctly identifiable and controllable.
This layer also involves assigning a low range of networking devices like sensors, actuators, RFID tags, etc, and resource management check the availability of physical resources of all the devices and networks involved in the underlying infrastructure. These devices contain very limited resources and resource management ensures maximum utilization with little overhead. It also allows sharing and distribution of information among multiple networks or a single networks divided into multiple domains.
2. Access Layer-
- Context Data will be reached to the internet via IoT Gateway as captured by short-range devices in form of raw data. The access layer comprises topology definition, network initiation, creation of domains, etc. This layer also includes connection setup, intra-inter domain communication, scheduling, packet transmissions between flow sensors, and IoT gateway. The simulation was run later in this paper for different scenarios based on this layer. Feature management contains a feature filter that accepts only acceptable context data and redundant data are rejected. A large number of sensors maintains lots of features but only a small subset of features is useful to generate context data.
- Feature filter helps to reduce irrelevant data transmission, increases the data transfer rate of useful data, and reduces energy and CPU consumption too. The number of features can be different based on the application requirements and context data types.
3. Abstraction Layer-
- One of the most important characteristics of OpenFlow is to add virtual layers with the preset layers, leaving the established infrastructure unchanged. A virtual link can be created among different networks and a common platform can be developed for various communication systems. The system is fully a centralized system from a physical layer viewpoint but a distribution of service (flow visor could be utilized) could be maintained. One central system can monitor, and control all sorts of traffics. It can help to achieve better bandwidth, reliability, robust routing, etc. which will lead to a better Quality of Services (QoS).
- · In a multi-hopping scenario packets are transferred via some adjacent nodes. So, nodes near access points bear too much load in comparison to distant nodes in a downstream scenario and the inactivity of these important nodes may cause the network to be collapsed. The virtual presence of sensor nodes can solve the problem where we can create a virtual link between two sensor networks through access point negotiation. So, we can design three a three-layer platform, where a common platform and virtualization layer are newly added with established infrastructure. Sensors need not be worried about reach-ability or their placement even in harsh areas. The packet could be sent to any nodes even if it is sited on different networks.
4. Service Layer-
- Storage management bears the idea of all sorts of unfamiliar and/or important technologies and information which can turn the system scalable and efficient. It is not only responsible for storing data but also to provide security along with it. It also allows accessing data effectively; integrating data to enhance service intelligence, analysis based on the services required, and most importantly increases the storage efficiency. The storage and management layer involves data storage & system supervision, software services and business management & operations. Though they are included in one layer, the business support system resides slightly above of cloud computing service whereas Open-Flow is placed below it as presented to include virtualizations and monitor management.
- Service management combines the required services with organizational solutions and thus new generation user service becomes simplified. These forthcoming services are necessitated to be interrelated and combined in order to meet the demand for socio-economic factors such as environmental analysis, safety measurement, climate management, agriculture modernization, etc
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